Christy Mallory

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    The Impact of Stigma and Discrimination against LGBT People in Florida

    Christy Mallory, Taylor N.T. Brown, Susan E. Walch, Brad Sears
    October 2017

    Florida’s legal landscape and social climate put the state’s 663,000 LGBT adults and 100,000 youth at risk of discrimination and harassment. The social, economic and health effects of stigma and discrimination against LGBT people cost hundreds of millions of dollars each year.

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    Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Montana

    Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    September 2017

    Approximately 22,300 LGBT people in Montana are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state law. Adding sexual orientation and gender identity to the state’s existing employment non-discrimination law would not be costly or burdensome for the state to enforce.

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    Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Idaho

    Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    September 2017

    Approximately 31,800 LGBT people in Idaho are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state law. Adding sexual orientation and gender identity to the state’s existing employment non-discrimination law would not be costly or burdensome for the state to enforce.

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    Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Wyoming

    Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    September 2017

    Approximately 15,100 LGBT people in Wyoming are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state law. Adding sexual orientation and gender identity to the state’s existing employment non-discrimination laws would not be costly or burdensome for the state to enforce.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Nebraska

    Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    August 2017

    Approximately 34,800 LGBT workers in Nebraska are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state law. Adding sexual orientation and gender identity to the state’s existing employment non-discrimination law would not be costly or burdensome for the state to enforce.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Indiana

    Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    August 2017

    Approximately 133,000 LGBT workers in Indiana are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state law. Adding sexual orientation and gender identity to the state’s existing employment non-discrimination laws would not be costly or burdensome for the state to enforce.

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    Estimates of Marriages of Same-Sex Couples at the Two-Year Anniversary of Obergefell v. Hodges

    Adam P. Romero
    June 2017

    Over 150,000 same-sex couples have married since the U.S. Supreme Court extended marriage equality nationwide. In total, over 1.1 million LGBT adults are currently married to a same-sex partner.

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    The Impact of Stigma and Discrimination against LGBT People in Texas

    by Christy Mallory, Taylor N.T. Brown, Stephen Russell & Brad Sears, April 2017

    Texas’s legal landscape and social climate contribute to an environment in which LGBT people are at risk of experiencing stigma and harassment. Stigma and discrimination can lead to economic instability and poorer health for LGBT people. These individual-level outcomes, in turn, can negatively impact the state, businesses, and the economy in a number of ways.

    The study documents the prevalence and impact on LGBT people of several forms of stigma and discrimination, including harassment and discrimination in employment, housing, and public accommodations; harassment and bullying in schools; and family rejection. The study also discusses the economic implications of such discrimination.

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    770,000 LGBT Adults and 158,500 LGBT Youth in Texas Vulnerable to Stigma and Discrimination

    Texas is home to an estimated 770,000 LGBT adults and 158,500 LGBT youth. The study documents the prevalence and impact of several forms of stigma and discrimination against LGBT individuals in the state, including harassment and discrimination in employment, housing, and public accommodations; harassment and bullying in schools; and family rejection.

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    73,400 LGBT Workers in Alabama Vulnerable to Ongoing Employment Discrimination

    Christy Mallory and Brad Sears

    Approximately 73,400 LGBT workers in Alabama are vulnerable to employment discrimination absent explicit statewide legal protections, while 71 Percent of Alabama Residents Support Legal Protections for LGBT Workers.

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    94,700 LGBT Workers in Tennessee Lack Statewide Protections Against Ongoing Employment Discrimination

    Christy Mallory and Brad Sears, February 2017

    Adding sexual orientation and gender identity to the state’s existing non-discrimination law would protect these workers, and would not be costly or burdensome for the state to enforce.

    Approximately 94,700 LGBT workers in Tennessee are vulnerable to employment discrimination absent explicit statewide legal protections.

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    Stigma and Discrimination Against LGBT People in Georgia Negatively Impact 300,000 LGBT Adults and 58,200 LGBT Youth in the State

    Christy Mallory, Brad Sears, Eric R. Wright & Kerith Conron, January 2017

    Georgia’s unsupportive legal landscape and social climate contribute to an environment in which LGBT people are at risk of discrimination and harassment, with costs estimated in the hundreds of millions.

    This study estimated costs related to discrimination against LGBT people in employment and other settings; to bullying and family rejection of LGBT youth; and to health disparities resulting from a challenging climate for LGBT people. The study drew upon state-level data to estimate some of the cost savings that would result if Georgia were to move towards creating a more accepting environment for its 300,000 LGBT adults and 58,200 LGBT youth.

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    Estimating the Economic Impact of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples One Year after Obergefell

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    June 2016

    Weddings by same-sex couples have generated an estimated $1.58 billion boost to the national economy, and $102 million in state and local sales tax revenue, since the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision extending marriage equality nationwide in June 2015. Since Obergefell v. Hodges, 132,000 same-sex couples have married, bringing the total of married same-sex couples in the U.S. to 491,000, or 49% of all same-sex couples.

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    Discrimination, Diversity, and Development: The Legal and Economic Implications of North Carolina’s HB2

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    May 2016

    This report considers the legal and economic implications of North Carolina’s HB2. After considering the size of the LGBT population in North Carolina, and the legal landscape and social climate they face, this report estimates that HB2 directly puts at risk almost $5 billion just in terms of federal funding and business investment. In addition, HB2 contributes to a challenging environment for LGBT people that potentially costs the state tens to hundreds of millions of dollars each year.

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    The Fiscal Impact of Washington State Initiative Measure 1515

    By Amira Hasenbush, Christy Mallory, and Brad Sears
    May 2016

    A ballot initiative in Washington State that would restrict access to restrooms based on biological sex would impact an estimated 26,400 transgender people in the state, and could put at risk up to $4.5 billion in annual federal funding to schools and other state and local government entities. The initiative is in conflict with the gender identity non-discrimination requirements under several federal laws including Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, Executive Order 13672, Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, the Violence Against Women Act, the Affordable Care Act, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Housing Act of 1949. Federal agencies that enforce the laws are authorized to suspend or terminate funding if recipients violate the non-discrimination requirements.

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    North Carolina’s House Bill 2 Puts $4.8 Billion in Federal Funding At Risk

    Today, the U.S. Department of Justice notified North Carolina state officials that House Bill 2, the North Carolina law restricting restroom access based on biological sex, violates the non-discrimination requirements of federal laws including Title IX of the Education Amendments, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, and the Violence Against Women Act. As a result of these violations, House Bill 2 puts a total of $4.8 billion in federal funding at risk annually, according to a new analysis conducted by Christy Mallory, senior counsel, and Brad Sears, executive director, at the Williams Institute at UCLA School of Law.

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    The Fiscal Impact of North Carolina’s HB2

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    May 2016

    North Carolina’s law restricting access to restrooms based on sex listed on an individual’s birth certificate impacts an estimated 37,800 transgender people in the state, and puts at risk $4.8 billion in federal funding to state and local government entities. The law is in conflict with the gender identity non-discrimination requirements under several federal laws including Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, Executive Order 13672, Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, the Violence Against Women Act, the Affordable Care Act, the Equal Access Rule, and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Federal agencies that enforce the laws are authorized to suspend or terminate funding if recipients violate the non-discrimination requirements.

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    Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Regarding Establishing Paid Sick Leave for Federal Contractors, RIN 1235-AA13

    By Christy Mallory, Brad Sears, Adam Romero, and Jody Herman
    April 2016

    Williams Institute experts provided comments today on a proposed rule that implements Executive Order 13706, signed by President Barack Obama on September 2015, requiring federal contractors to provide paid sick leave to their employees. The rule will protect LGBT employees of federal contractors by ensuring that they have paid time off to meet the health care needs of themselves and their families.

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    The Fiscal Impact of Tennessee House Bill 2414

    By Christy Mallory, Brad Sears and Christopher Carpenter
    April 2016

    Tennessee House Bill 2414 requires public educational institutions to restrict students’ use of restrooms according to the sex assigned on their birth certificates. This policy is in conflict with several federal laws, and, if enacted, could lead to loss of federal funding, administrative enforcement proceedings, and litigation, which could result in costs and lost revenue to the State of Tennessee. This report estimates the number of transgender youth and adults in Tennessee and the amount of federal funding the state could stand to lose if the legislation were passed.

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    LGBT in the South

    By Christy Mallory, Andrew Flores and Brad Sears
    March 2016

    Christy Mallory, Andrew Flores and Brad Sears head to Asheville, North Carolina, to the LGBT in the South Conference to discuss the Williams Institute’s research on LGBT demographics and discrimination in the Southern states. Thirty-five percent of the LGBT population in the United States lives in the South, where they are more likely to lack employment protections, earn less than $24,000 a year, and report that they cannot afford food or healthcare.

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