Nonbinary LGBTQ Adults in the United States

June 2021

Using data from the Generations and TransPop studies, two population-based surveys of LGBQ and transgender people in the U.S., this study examines the demographics and characteristics of LGBTQ adults, ages 18-60, who identify as nonbinary.

The majority of nonbinary LGBTQ adults are under age 29, urban, and white.
A greater percentage of nonbinary LGBTQ adults are cisgender rather than transgender.
The majority of nonbinary adults use queer, bisexual, pansexual, or asexual to describe their sexual orientation.
Data Points
LGBTQ people in the US identify as nonbinary
of LGBTQ adults
of nonbinary LGBTQ adults are between the ages of 18-29
live in urban areas
of nonbinary adults do not have enough money to make ends meet
live below 200% of FPL
of nonbinary adults faced emotional abuse as a child
of them were bullied
of nonbinary people were exposed to conversion therapy as a child
of them report being assaulted as adults
of nonbinary adults report that their health is poor or fair
of nonbinary adults have considered suicide
of them had attempted suicide


Gender identities that fall outside of the man-woman binary are represented in the scientific and popular literatures, using terms such as nonbinary, gender fluid, and genderqueer.1 Just as both transgender and cisgender2 people use binary identities (i.e., man, woman), both transgender and cisgender people use nonbinary gender identities. Researchers have found that there are key differences between binary and nonbinary identified transgender people that are relevant to understanding health and well-being, such as higher rates of depression but lower rates of mental health care usage among nonbinary people.3 Far less is known about people who identify with a nonbinary identity who are not transgender. This research brief provides demographics and descriptive statistics on the economic status and health of transgender and cisgender nonbinary LGBTQ adults ages 18-60 years old. See, Methods Note for information about the sampling design and the studies from which these data originate. 


About 11% of the LGBTQ adults (age 18-60 years) identify as nonbinary in terms of their gender. While nonbinary-identified people are among both cisgender and transgender LGBTQ populations, they make up a larger proportion of the transgender population than of the cisgender LGBQ adult population (Table 1). 

Characteristics of Nonbinary People

The majority of nonbinary LGBTQ adults are young, urban, and born in the U.S. In terms of race/ethnicity identity (Table A.1), respondents identified as White (58%) multiracial (16%), Latinx (15%), and Black (9%). Due to recruitment strategy for the Generations study, American Indian/Native Alaskan and Asian/Pacific Islanders are under-represented in this report (see Methods Note). Nonbinary LGBTQ adults live in all regions of the U.S., though they are slightly less likely to live in the Midwest (16%) than in the Northeast (25%), South (27%), and West (31%).

Most nonbinary LGBTQ adults did not identify as transgender (Figure 1). When asked about sexual identities, nonbinary respondents reported that they use a broad range of sexual identity terms—a majority reported queer (31%),4  bisexual (17%), pansexual (17%), or asexual (14%) identities (Figure 3).5 

Tables A.1– A.3 provide more information about nonbinary people’s demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status and housing stability, and relationships and parenting. As seen in Figure 4, nonbinary LGBTQ adults report relatively high indicators of economic instability. 

Stressful Experiences in Adulthood and Before Age 18

Tables A.4 – A.10 provide information about stress experiences of nonbinary LGBTQ people. These data show that a majority of nonbinary people were hit, beaten, physically attacked, or sexually assaulted (55%) at some points since they were 18 years old (Figure 5). Also, most felt that they were less respected (54%) than other people over the year prior to being interviewed. Many suffered chronic stressors, including not having enough money to make ends meet (68%), feeling mentally and physically tired because of their job (68%), being alone too much (56%), and having strained or conflicted relationships with their parents (60%). Nonbinary LGBTQ adults also experienced stress in childhood (before age 18, Figure 6), including emotional (82%), physical (40%), and sexual (41%) abuse. More than one in ten nonbinary people (11%) had gone through conversion therapy to change their sexual orientation (cis LGBQ respondents) or gender identity (transgender respondents). 


Tables A.11– A.13 provide information about the health and health care of nonbinary LGBTQ people. In terms of physical and mental health (Figure 7), nonbinary LGBTQ adults reported relatively high rates of mental health concerns, including 41% who said their health was poor or fair, 51% who had symptoms consistent with serious mental illness, and 39% who had attempted suicide. The majority (79%) had a usual place where they received health care and had health insurance, but almost 10% lacked health insurance. 


Nonbinary people make up approximately 11% of the adult LGBTQ population, approximately 11%. While nonbinary identified adults make up a large share of the transgender population (43%), most nonbinary LGBTQ adults are not transgender. Though this brief is not comparative, the findings show that nonbinary LGBTQ adults have similar vulnerabilities in mental health and income as the general LGBTQ population, especially transgender adults.6 We recognize that identities and terms related to gender and sexuality shift across time and that our 2016-2018 data reflect a particular historical moment. Given data from large-scale youth surveys illustrating that 2-10% identify with gender minority labels, and many of them identified with gender nonbinary terms,7 both cisgender and transgender nonbinary subpopulations are likely to be a growing dimension of the LGBTQ population. Future research should continue to identify whether nonbinary LGBTQ adults and youth have significantly different outcomes than do binary (cisgender and transgender) or other transgender-identified LGBTQ adults. This study also highlights a likely gap in research: the demographics and experiences of nonbinary-identified people who do not identify with LGBTQ labels at all. 

Download the full brief and tables

Nonbinary LGBTQ Adults in the United States

Barsigian, L. L., Hammack, P. L., Morrow, Q. J., Wilson, B. D. M., & Russell, S. T. (2020). Narratives of gender, sexuality, and community in three generations of genderqueer sexual minorities. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 7(3), 276–292. https://doi. org/10.1037/sgd0000384 

 We use the term nonbinary as an umbrella term including other similar personal identities such as genderqueer. We use the term cisgender both to refer to those whose sex assigned at birth is the same as their current gender identity and “as a positive identification of a non-trans* identity” (B. Aultman (2014, May 1). Cisgender. TSQ, 1(1–2): 61–62. doi: 10.1215/23289252-2399614). In this study, respondents labeled “cis” or “cisgender” identified as nonbinary in the survey and reported the same sex assigned at birth (e.g., female) as their current gender (e.g., woman) in contrast with transgender people, who identified their current gender as different than their sex assigned at birth. We recognize that this inclusion of cisgender nonbinary-identified people may differ from social and political movement work, which sometimes includes all nonbinary people under the transgender umbrella term. 

Reisner SL, Hughto JMW. Comparing the health of non-binary and binary transgender adults in a statewide non-probability sample. PLoS One. 2019;14(8):e0221583. Published 2019 Aug 27. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0221583

Goldberg, S., Rothblum, E.D., Russell, S.T., & Meyer, I.H. (2020, November). Exploring the q in lgbtq: Demographic characteristics and sexuality of queer people in a U.S. representative sample of sexual minorities. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity. doi. org/10.1037/sgd0000359. NIMHS: 1058352 

Rothblum, E., Krueger, E.A., Kittle, K.R., & Meyer, I.H. (2019). Asexual and Non-Asexual Respondents from a U.S. Population-Based Study of Sexual Minorities. Archives of Sexual Behavior. doi: 10.1007/s10508-019-01485-0 PMID: 31214906

Meyer, I.H., Wilson, B.D.M., & O’Neill, K. (2021). LGBTQ People in the US: Select Findings from the Generations and TransPop Studies. Los Angeles: The Williams Institute. 

Kidd, K. M., Sequeira, G. M., Douglas, C., Paglisotti, T., Inwards-Breland, D. J., Miller, E., & Coulter, R. W. S. (2021). Prevalence of gender-diverse youth in an urban school district. Pediatrics, 147(6). doi: 10.1542/PEDS.2020-049823; Rider, G. N., McMorris, B. J., Gower, A. L., Coleman, E., & Eisenberg, M. E. (2018). Health and care utilization of transgender and gender-nonconforming youth: A population-based study. Pediatrics, 141(3). doi: 10.1542/PEDS.2017-1683 

Meyer, I. H., Russell, S. T., Hammack, P. L., Frost, D. M., & Wilson, B. D. M. (2021). Minority stress, distress, and suicide attempts in three cohorts of sexual minority adults: A U.S. probability sample. PLoS ONE 16(3): e0246827. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0246827