This page contains state-specific research for the state of Pennsylvania:
- By Jordan Blair Woods, Brad Sears, Christy MallorySeptember 2016“Gay panic” and “transgender panic” defenses have been asserted by defendants in criminal trials throughout the U.S. since the 1960s. In these cases, defendants have argued that their violent behavior was a rational response to discovering that the victim was LGBT. The defenses are rooted in irrational fears based on homophobia and transphobia, and send the message that violence against LGBT people is understandable and acceptable. When successful, these defenses have resulted in murder charges being reduced to manslaughter or another lesser offense. To date, only one state, California, has banned defendants from asserting gay or transgender panic defense by statute. In this brief, Williams Institute scholars present model language, based on the language adopted in California, that other states may use to eliminate use of the defenses through legislation. The model legislation offers language to prohibit defendants from using gay and trans panic defenses under each of the major defenses theories of provocation, insanity/diminished capacity, and self-defense. In addition, the brief provides an overview of the ways in which the defenses have been asserted in trials throughout the last several decades, and evaluates potential constitutional challenges to state legislation eliminating use of the defenses.
- By Andrew R. Flores, Jody L. Herman, Gary J. Gates, and Taylor N. T. BrownJune 2016Utilizing data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), which includes representative state-level surveys, Williams Institute scholars provide up-to-date estimates of the percentage and number of adults who identify as transgender in the United States. Approximately 0.6% of adults in the United States, or 1.4 million individuals, identify as transgender. The study also provides the first ever state-level estimates of the number and percentage of adults who identify as transgender for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Differences exist in the percentage of adults who identify as transgender among the states, ranging from 0.3% in North Dakota to 0.8% in Hawaii. Differences by age also exist, with younger adults more likely to identify as transgender than older adults. An estimated 0.7% of adults ages 18 to 24, 0.6% of adults ages 25 to 64, and 0.5% of adults ages 65 and older identify as transgender.
- By E.G. Fitzgerald, M.V. Lee BadgettMay 2014Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Pennsylvania would generate between $65 million to $92.1 million to the state and local economy of Pennsylvania over the course of three years, with a $42 million to $58.9 million boost in the first year alone. This economic boost would add $4.2 million to $5.8 million in sales tax revenue to state and local coffers. Spending related to same-sex couples’ wedding ceremonies and celebrations would also generate 812 to 1,142 full- and part-time jobs in the state.
- By Amira Hasenbush and Christy MalloryNovember 2013Pennsylvania’s 174,000 LGBT workers are vulnerable to employment discrimination absent state or federal legal protections. While 33 Pennsylvania localities provide some protections, 69 percent of the state’s workforce could suffer discrimination without recourse based on their actual or perceived sexual orientation or gender identity. Pennsylvania teachers, factory workers and law enforcement officers have all faced workplace discrimination based on their sexual orientation or gender identity. Uniform legal protections could provide more consistent and stronger recourse for the state’s workers at minimal administrative cost to the government.
- By Jennifer C. Pizer, Craig J. Konnoth, Christy Mallory, Brad SearsJune 2012This report explains CMS’s approach to extending Medicaid impoverishment protections to same-sex couples, and provides general information about the procedures through which the protections may be provided by states. States specific reports available for Colorado, Georgia, Illinois, Missouri, Pennsylvania, Utah, and Virginia.
- By Jody L. HermanApril 2012Voter ID laws in the following nine states may create substantial barriers for over 25,000 transgender voters in the November 2012 general election: Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, Mississippi, South Carolina, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin. All of these states have passed strict photo ID laws and could have them in place before the election season.
- MemorandumSeptember 2009This report documents public sector employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity in Pennsylvania. The report is part of a 15 chapter study that documents a widespread and persistent pattern of unconstitutional discrimination by state governments against LGBT people.
- By Adam P. Romero, Amanda K. Baumle, M.V. Lee Badgett, Gary J. GatesDecember 2007Demographic and economic information about same-sex couples and same-sex couples raising children based on data from Census 2000.