This page contains state-specific research for the state of Missouri:
- By Jordan Blair Woods, Brad Sears, Christy MallorySeptember 2016“Gay panic” and “transgender panic” defenses have been asserted by defendants in criminal trials throughout the U.S. since the 1960s. In these cases, defendants have argued that their violent behavior was a rational response to discovering that the victim was LGBT. The defenses are rooted in irrational fears based on homophobia and transphobia, and send the message that violence against LGBT people is understandable and acceptable. When successful, these defenses have resulted in murder charges being reduced to manslaughter or another lesser offense. To date, only one state, California, has banned defendants from asserting gay or transgender panic defense by statute. In this brief, Williams Institute scholars present model language, based on the language adopted in California, that other states may use to eliminate use of the defenses through legislation. The model legislation offers language to prohibit defendants from using gay and trans panic defenses under each of the major defenses theories of provocation, insanity/diminished capacity, and self-defense. In addition, the brief provides an overview of the ways in which the defenses have been asserted in trials throughout the last several decades, and evaluates potential constitutional challenges to state legislation eliminating use of the defenses.
- By Andrew R. Flores, Jody L. Herman, Gary J. Gates, and Taylor N. T. BrownJune 2016Utilizing data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), which includes representative state-level surveys, Williams Institute scholars provide up-to-date estimates of the percentage and number of adults who identify as transgender in the United States. Approximately 0.6% of adults in the United States, or 1.4 million individuals, identify as transgender. The study also provides the first ever state-level estimates of the number and percentage of adults who identify as transgender for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Differences exist in the percentage of adults who identify as transgender among the states, ranging from 0.3% in North Dakota to 0.8% in Hawaii. Differences by age also exist, with younger adults more likely to identify as transgender than older adults. An estimated 0.7% of adults ages 18 to 24, 0.6% of adults ages 25 to 64, and 0.5% of adults ages 65 and older identify as transgender.
Estimates of Transgender Populations in States with Legislation Impacting Transgender People (Update)By Jody L. Herman, Christy Mallory, and Bianca D.M. WilsonNearly 300,000 transgender youth and adults may be negatively impacted by legislation introduced in 15 states. These bills would limit access to single-sex restrooms and locker rooms at schools and in public places; limit protections based on gender identity; permit individuals and businesses to discriminate against transgender people based on religious and moral beliefs; and limit the ability to change certain vital records documents, such as birth certificates, or enforce the use of birth certificates to establish an individual's sex for certain purposes. The report includes a brief description of each bill, which age groups it would affect, and how many transgender people we estimate live in each state.
Demographics of Same-sex Couples in Arkansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota: Analyses of the 2013 American Community SurveyBy Gary GatesMarch 2015Analyzing data from the 2013 US American Community Survey, this report considers the demographic, economic, and geographic characteristics of same-sex couples (married and unmarried), especially those raising children, in Arkansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. Comparisons are made with their different-sex counterparts.
- By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee BadgettSeptember 2014Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Missouri would generate an estimated $36.3 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 10,557 same-sex couples live in Missouri. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (5,279couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring over $23.2 million in revenue to the state of Missouri that year.
Employment, Housing, and Public Accommodations Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in MissouriBy Christy Mallory and Sarah LiebowitzNovember 2013The 160,000 LGBT adults in Missouri would benefit from an expanded state non-discrimination law that includes sexual orientation and gender identity. There is currently no Missouri law protecting LGBT people from discrimination in housing, employment, and public accommodations. Eighteen Missouri localities currently provide protection from sexual orientation discrimination by local ordinance, sixteen of which also provide protection against gender identity discrimination, but the ordinances are inconsistent, and less effective than a state-wide law would be.
- By Jennifer C. Pizer, Craig J. Konnoth, Christy Mallory, Brad SearsJune 2012This report explains CMS’s approach to extending Medicaid impoverishment protections to same-sex couples, and provides general information about the procedures through which the protections may be provided by states. States specific reports available for Colorado, Georgia, Illinois, Missouri, Pennsylvania, Utah, and Virginia.
- MemorandumSeptember 2009This report documents public sector employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity in Missouri. The report is part of a 15 chapter study that documents a widespread and persistent pattern of unconstitutional discrimination by state governments against LGBT people.
- By Adam P. Romero, Clifford J. Rosky, M.V. Lee Badgett, Gary J. GatesJanuary 2008Demographic and economic information about same-sex couples and same-sex couples raising children based on data from Census 2000.