This page contains state-specific research for the state of Hawaii:
- By Jordan Blair Woods, Brad Sears, Christy MallorySeptember 2016“Gay panic” and “transgender panic” defenses have been asserted by defendants in criminal trials throughout the U.S. since the 1960s. In these cases, defendants have argued that their violent behavior was a rational response to discovering that the victim was LGBT. The defenses are rooted in irrational fears based on homophobia and transphobia, and send the message that violence against LGBT people is understandable and acceptable. When successful, these defenses have resulted in murder charges being reduced to manslaughter or another lesser offense. To date, only one state, California, has banned defendants from asserting gay or transgender panic defense by statute. In this brief, Williams Institute scholars present model language, based on the language adopted in California, that other states may use to eliminate use of the defenses through legislation. The model legislation offers language to prohibit defendants from using gay and trans panic defenses under each of the major defenses theories of provocation, insanity/diminished capacity, and self-defense. In addition, the brief provides an overview of the ways in which the defenses have been asserted in trials throughout the last several decades, and evaluates potential constitutional challenges to state legislation eliminating use of the defenses.
- By Andrew R. Flores, Jody L. Herman, Gary J. Gates, and Taylor N. T. BrownJune 2016Utilizing data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), which includes representative state-level surveys, Williams Institute scholars provide up-to-date estimates of the percentage and number of adults who identify as transgender in the United States. Approximately 0.6% of adults in the United States, or 1.4 million individuals, identify as transgender. The study also provides the first ever state-level estimates of the number and percentage of adults who identify as transgender for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Differences exist in the percentage of adults who identify as transgender among the states, ranging from 0.3% in North Dakota to 0.8% in Hawaii. Differences by age also exist, with younger adults more likely to identify as transgender than older adults. An estimated 0.7% of adults ages 18 to 24, 0.6% of adults ages 25 to 64, and 0.5% of adults ages 65 and older identify as transgender.
Estimates of Transgender Populations in States with Legislation Impacting Transgender People (Update)By Jody L. Herman, Christy Mallory, and Bianca D.M. WilsonNearly 300,000 transgender youth and adults may be negatively impacted by legislation introduced in 15 states. These bills would limit access to single-sex restrooms and locker rooms at schools and in public places; limit protections based on gender identity; permit individuals and businesses to discriminate against transgender people based on religious and moral beliefs; and limit the ability to change certain vital records documents, such as birth certificates, or enforce the use of birth certificates to establish an individual's sex for certain purposes. The report includes a brief description of each bill, which age groups it would affect, and how many transgender people we estimate live in each state.
- By Gary J. GatesOctober 2013Based on the Census 2010, there are 3,239 same-sex couples living in Hawaii. These couples were identified in all of Hawaii’s counties. The majority of same-sex couples are male (53%), accounting for 1,715 couples. There are 1,524 female couples. The average age of individuals in couples in Hawaii is nearly the same for those in same-sex and different-sex couples, 51.6and 50.2 years old, respectively.
- October 2013A new infographic by the Williams Institute shows there are more than 53,900 LGBT individuals in Hawai'i and approximately 3,200 same-sex couples in the state. Extending marriage rights to same-sex couples in Hawai'i could affect nearly 54,000 LGBT individuals and more than 3,000 couples living in the state. It would also bring up to $217 million to the state economy.
- By Sumner La Croix, Kimberly BurnettFebruary 2011This report provides quantitative and qualitative measures of the impact of same-sex civil unions on the Hawai`i economy, Hawai`i businesses, and the State of Hawai`i’s budget. Research concludes that the legalization of civil unions in Hawai`i will have only a very minimal impact on any aspect of Hawai`i’s economy and state government operations.
- By Naomi G. Goldberg, Brad Sears, M.V. Lee BadgettJune 2010This memo summarizes current research about the potential impact on the State of Hawai’i of HB444 HD1 SD1: Relating to Civil Unions on the state economy and budget. The fiscal effects of allowing civil unions in Hawai'i include a boost the state economy from increased spending and jobs, and a positive impact on the state budget through increased revenue and savings.
- MemorandumSeptember 2009This report documents public sector employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity in Hawaii. The report is part of a 15 chapter study that documents a widespread and persistent pattern of unconstitutional discrimination by state governments against LGBT people.
- By Adam P. Romero, Clifford J. Rosky, M.V. Lee Badgett, Gary J. GatesApril 2008Demographic and economic information about same-sex couples and same-sex couples raising children based on data from Census 2000.