The Real Story of U.S. Hate Crime Statistics: An Empirical Analysis

By William B. Rubenstein
June 2003

Through the first careful empirical analysis, William Rubenstein constructs a different, more nuanced, story of Hate Crimes Statistics Act (HCSA) data: before September 11, three groups in the US – gay people, Jewish people, and African-Americans, in that order – reported by far the greatest number of hate crimes.

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