The Fiscal Impact of Washington State Initiative Measure 1515
By Amira Hasenbush, Christy Mallory, and Brad Sears
A ballot initiative in Washington State that would restrict access to restrooms based on biological sex would impact an estimated 26,400 transgender people in the state, and could put at risk up to $4.5 billion in annual federal funding to schools and other state and local government entities. The initiative is in conflict with the gender identity non-discrimination requirements under several federal laws including Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, Executive Order 13672, Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, the Violence Against Women Act, the Affordable Care Act, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Housing Act of 1949. Federal agencies that enforce the laws are authorized to suspend or terminate funding if recipients violate the non-discrimination requirements. Loss of federal funding under the laws could impact schools, workforce development programs, law enforcement, health care programs, housing assistance, and programs for survivors of violence.