Transgender Issues

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    Gendered Restrooms and Minority Stress: The Public Regulation of Gender and its Impact on Transgender People’s Lives

    By Jody L. Herman
    June 2013

    Transgender and gender non-conforming people report being denied access to gendered restrooms, and experiencing verbal harassment and physical assault in these spaces at alarming rates. In a Washington, DC- based survey, conducted with the DC Trans Coalition, 70 percent of survey respondents reported experiencing one or more of these problems. The study identifies the impact these negative experiences can have on education, employment, health, and participation in public life.

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    Local Laws and Government Policies Prohibiting Discrimination Based on Gender Identity in New York

    By Christy Mallory, Sarah Liebowitz
    May 2013

    Amending New York’s Human Rights Law to explicitly prohibit discrimination based on gender identity would extend protections to an estimated 41 percent of New York’s population, including 23,800 transgender people. Currently, 59 percent of New Yorkers are covered by 12 local ordinances that are inconsistent, limited and, at times, weaker than the state human rights law. Five ordinances do not provide protection in all areas covered by the state human rights law.

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    The Cost of Employment and Housing Discrimination against Transgender Residents of New York

    By Jody L. Herman
    April 2013

    Employment and housing discrimination against New York’s transgender residents costs the state millions of dollars each year. These costs include public assistance and housing expenditures, and lost income tax revenue. According to population figures from the 2010 Census, 23,800 New York transgender residents are not covered by local ordinances that prohibit discrimination on the basis of gender identity in employment, housing, public accomodations, and other areas.

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    The Potential Impact of a Strict Voter Identification Law on Transgender Voters in North Carolina

    By Jody L. Herman
    February 2013

    Transgender citizens with inaccurate identification may encounter obstacles to voting. An increasing number of U.S. states have adopted voter identification laws, the strictest of which require voters to present government-issued photo ID at the polls. If North Carolina were to implement a strict photo ID law for voting, this law may create substantial barriers to voting and possible disenfranchisement for nearly 5,000 transgender residents of North Carolina.

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    Gender-Related Measures Overview

    The GenIUSS Group
    February 2013

    The GenIUSS group (Gender Identity in U.S. Surveillance), convened by the Williams Institute, is a collaboration of scientists, scholars, and transgender leaders dedicated to increasing knowledge about gender-related measurement and promoting the inclusion of these measures on population-based surveys, with particular consideration for publicly-funded data collection efforts.

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    A Gender Not Listed Here: Genderqueers, Gender Rebels, and OtherWise in the National Transgender Discrimination Survey

    By Jack Harrison, Jaime Grant, and Jody L. Herman
    April 2012

    Genderqueer individuals suffer discrimination and violence at similar, and sometimes even higher rates, than transgender-identified individuals. In particular, they suffer physical assault and police harassment more often, are more likely to be unemployed, and are more likely to avoid healthcare treatment for fear of discrimination.

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    The Potential Impact of Voter Identification Laws on Transgender Voters

    By Jody L. Herman
    April 2012

    Voter ID laws in the following nine states may create substantial barriers for over 25,000 transgender voters in the November 2012 general election: Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, Mississippi, South Carolina, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin. All of these states have passed strict photo ID laws and could have them in place before the election season.

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    Interactions of Transgender Latina Women with Law Enforcement

    By Frank H. Galvan and Mohsen Bazargan
    April 2012

    A new report, funded by the Williams Institute, reveals high levels of reported harassment and assault of Latina transgender women by law enforcement agencies and highlights steps that police departments should take to improve relations with the transgender community. The report is based on interviews with 220 Latina transgender women from the Los Angeles area.

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    Associations Between Transition-Specific Stress Experience, Nocturnal Decline in Ambulatory Blood Pressure, and C-Reactive Protein Levels Among Transgender Men

    By L. Zachary DuBois
    January 2012

    This study documents a number of important physiological manifestations of stress associated with the process of transition, describing the physical impacts of psychosocial stress during various stages of transition for trans men.

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    The Cost of Employment Discrimination against Transgender Residents of Massachusetts

    By Jody L. Herman
    April 2011

    Transgender residents of Massachusetts have reported experiencing discrimination in employment. Loss of employment due to anti-transgender bias often means lost wages, lost health insurance coverage, and housing instability. This study estimates that the impact of discrimination is likely to cost the Commonwealth millions of dollars each year.

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    Documenting Gender

    By Dean Spade
    April 2008

    In the last few years, both the passage of the Real ID Act and the implementation of new data comparison practices between administrative agencies such as departments of motor vehicles (DMVs) and the Social Security Administration (SSA) have emerged with the aims of enforcing immigration laws about work eligibility and bolstering national security.

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    Sexuality Research and Social Policy Journal, Volume 5, Number 1

    Articles co-authored by Dean Spade and Paisley Currah and Dean Spade and Rickke Mananzala.
    March 2008

    Williams Institute Law Teaching Fellow Dean Spade recently co-edited a two-part special issue of the Sexuality Research and Social Policy Journal with Paisley Currah and an article co-authored with Rickke Mananzala that also appears in the journal.

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