Stigma and Discrimination Against LGBT People in Georgia Negatively Impact 300,000 LGBT Adults and 58,200 LGBT Youth in the State
Christy Mallory, Brad Sears, Eric R. Wright & Kerith Conron, January 2017
Georgia’s unsupportive legal landscape and social climate contribute to an environment in which LGBT people are at risk of discrimination and harassment, with costs estimated in the hundreds of millions.
This study estimated costs related to discrimination against LGBT people in employment and other settings; to bullying and family rejection of LGBT youth; and to health disparities resulting from a challenging climate for LGBT people. The study drew upon state-level data to estimate some of the cost savings that would result if Georgia were to move towards creating a more accepting environment for its 300,000 LGBT adults and 58,200 LGBT youth.Read more
Jody L. Herman, Andrew R. Flores, Taylor N. T. Brown, Bianca D.M. Wilson, and Kerith J. Conron, January 2017
An estimated 0.7 percent of youth ages 13 to 17, or 150,000 youth, identify as transgender in the United States, according to a new study released by The Williams Institute at the UCLA School of Law. This study is the first to provide population estimates for youth who identify as transgender in each of the 50 states, plus the District of Columbia.
The study provides new estimates of the age composition of individuals who identify as transgender in the U.S. and estimates of the size of the transgender-identified population by age group. The youngest age group, 13 to 17, has the highest estimated percentage of individuals who identify as transgender.Read more
If Passed, Virginia House Bill 1612 Would Negatively Impact 34,500 Transgender Adults and Thousands of Transgender Youth
On January 11, a Virginia lawmaker offered House Bill 1612 (HB 1612), which would require transgender people to use bathrooms in public schools, government buildings, and public universities based on “sex,” as determined by one’s “original birth certificate.” Additionally, the bill would require schools to inform parents or guardians within 24 hours if their child seeks “to be recognized or treated as the opposite sex, to use a name or pronouns inconsistent with the child’s sex, or to use a restroom or changing facility designated for the opposite sex.”
HB 1612 would negatively impact over 34,000 transgender adults in Virginia. Virginia ranks 24th in the United States in terms of adults who identify as transgender (0.55 percent) and over 40 percent of transgender adults in Virginia are People of Color, including 25 percent who identify as non-Hispanic Black or African-American and 10 percent who identify as Hispanic or Latino.Read more
Andrew R. Flores, Taylor N.T. Brown, and Andrew S. Park, December 2016
Transgender rights have emerged as a central feature in the discourse on LGBT rights in many countries; however, little is known about public support for such rights around the globe. This report presents findings from a ground-breaking survey of 17,105 adults across 23 countries about their attitudes towards transgender people and rights.
This study provides evidence of high levels of support for transgender rights, as well as instances of strong opposition.Read more
On December 22, 2016, 82 scholars who study the LGBT population–many of whom are affiliated with the Williams Institute–filed an amici curiae brief with the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit in Barber v. Bryant and Campaign for Southern Equality v. Bryant. These appeals concern the constitutionality of Mississippi’s House Bill 1523, which elevates three anti-LGBT religious beliefs …Read more
Amira Hasenbush and Dr. Brian Zanoni, December 2016
In California, outdated HIV criminalization laws do not reflect the highly effective medical advances for reducing the risk of HIV transmission and extending the quantity and quality of life for people living with HIV.
HIV criminalization is a term used to describe laws that either criminalize otherwise legal conduct or that increase the penalties for illegal conduct based upon a person’s HIV-positive status. California has four HIV-specific criminal laws.Read more
Lara Stemple, Andrew Flores, and Ilan H. Meyer, November 2016
Using U.S. federal agency data, researchers find that female sexual perpetration is more common than previously recognized. The researchers’ findings contradict the common belief that female sexual perpetration is rare.
Sexual victimization by women perpetrators occurs mostly against men and occasionally against women.
The research, published in a paper titled “Sexual Victimization Perpetrated by Women: Federal Data Reveal Surprising Prevalence” was written by Lara Stemple, Director of the UCLA Law School’s Health and Human Rights Law Project, and Williams Institute researchers Andrew Flores and Ilan Meyer and was recently published in Aggression and Violent Behavior.Read more
Bianca D.M. Wilson, Khush Cooper, Angel Kastanis, and Soon Kyu Choi, November 2016
This report describes the methodology used in a 2014 Williams Institute study on sexual and gender minority youth in the Los Angeles County foster care system . The 2014 study surveyed youth in foster care about their sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression, other demographic characteristics, and experiences in foster care. In this methods report about the 2014 study, researchers describe the study design and process, share their survey instrument and recommended questions, and review lessons learned from their experience.Read more
Williams Institute and other scholars who study the transgender population filed an amici curiae brief in Carcaño v. McCrory, the first litigation over North Carolina’s House Bill 2 (HB2) to reach the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. In this appeal, the court will consider the constitutionality of Part I of HB2, which …Read more
Adults Who Identify as Transgender are More Racially and Ethnically Diverse than the U.S. General Population
Andrew R. Flores, Taylor N. T. Brown, and Jody L. Herman October 2016
Adults who identify as transgender are more racially and ethnically diverse than the U.S. population overall, according to a new study released by The Williams Institute at the UCLA School of Law. This study is the first to provide estimates of the racial and ethnic make-up of adults who identify as transgender in each of the 50 states, plus the District of Columbia.
Researchers estimate that adults who identify as transgender are less likely to be white and more likely to be racial and ethnic minorities when compared to the U.S. general population. Adults who identify as African-American or black, Latino or Hispanic, and adults of another race or ethnicity are more likely than white adults to identify as transgender.Read more
Amira Hasenbush, Bianca D.M. Wilson, October 2016
In the new report HIV Criminalization Against Immigrants in California, Williams Institute Scholars Amira Hasenbush and Bianca D.M. Wilson, use California Criminal Offender Record Information (CORI) data to explore how HIV criminal laws in California are enforced against foreign born populations.
Key Findings include: 15 percent of people in California who have come into contact with the criminal justice system for HIV crimes are foreign born and 83 percent of those foreign born were from Mexico, Central or South America, or the Caribbean.Read more
Strict Voter ID Laws May Disenfranchise More Than 34,000 Transgender Voters in the 2016 November Election
Jody L. Herman, September 2016
Eight states’ voter ID laws may create substantial barriers to voting and possible disenfranchisement for tens of thousands of transgender voters this election. In Alabama, Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, Mississippi, Tennessee, Virginia, and Wisconsin, about 112,000 transgender people who have transitioned are estimated to be eligible to vote—34,000 of them may face barriers to voting this November due to strict ID laws.
According to a new study entitled, The Potential Impact of Voter Identification Laws on Transgender Voters in the 2016 General Election authored by Williams Institute Scholar Jody L. Herman, Ph.D., many transgender people who have transitioned do not have identification that accurately reflects their correct gender.Read more
M.V. Lee Badgett, Alyssa Schneebaum, September 2016
Increases in the minimum wage are being proposed, debated, and passed across the United States. In 2016, New York State and California significantly increased their state minimum wage, and the new rate will reach $15 per hour in 2022 in California, $15 per hour in 2018 in New York City, and $12.50 an hour in New York State in 2020.1 Research in 2014 suggested that increases in the minimum wage could reduce poverty, including poverty among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. This research brief predicts that raising the federal minimum wage from its current level of $7.25 to $15 an hour would reduce LGBT poverty by one-third for male same-sex couples and by almost one-half for female same-sex couples. Almost 30,000 people in same-sex couples would see their incomes rise above the federal poverty level.Read more
By Jordan Blair Woods, Brad Sears, Christy Mallory
“Gay panic” and “transgender panic” defenses have been asserted by defendants in criminal trials throughout the U.S. since the 1960s. In these cases, defendants have argued that their violent behavior was a rational response to discovering that the victim was LGBT. The defenses are rooted in irrational fears based on homophobia and transphobia, and send the message that violence against LGBT people is understandable and acceptable. When successful, these defenses have resulted in murder charges being reduced to manslaughter or another lesser offense.
To date, only one state, California, has banned defendants from asserting gay or transgender panic defense by statute. In this brief, Williams Institute scholars present model language, based on the language adopted in California, that other states may use to eliminate use of the defenses through legislation. The model legislation offers language to prohibit defendants from using gay and trans panic defenses under each of the major defenses theories of provocation, insanity/diminished capacity, and self-defense. In addition, the brief provides an overview of the ways in which the defenses have been asserted in trials throughout the last several decades, and evaluates potential constitutional challenges to state legislation eliminating use of the defenses.Read more
Blood Equality November 22, 2016 7:30pm Co-presented by the Hammer Museum WATCH VIDEO PRESENTATION In advance of December 1st, World AIDS Day, this panel examined the FDA’s ban on blood donations from gay and bisexual men, which currently requires celibacy for one year before donating.* Panelists included Brad Sears, Associate Dean and Executive Director of the Williams Institute …Read more
By Soon Kyu Choi, Ilan H. Meyer
In LGBT Aging: A Review of Research Findings, Needs, and Policy Implications, Soon Kyu Choi and Ilan H. Meyer, Ph.D. provide a review of what is known about lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) older adults.
“It is estimated that 2.4 million LGBT older adults over 50 live in the United States,” Ilan H Meyer, Ph.D., Williams Distinguished Senior Scholar of Public Policy, says. “That number is expected to double by 2030. The needs of older LGBT adults are quite different than those of the non-LGBT population. LGBT older adults are sometimes apprehensive of how they’ll be treated by healthcare providers or in senior care facilities. We need to ensure that LGBT seniors will receive sensitive and effective care wherever they go for care.”Read more
By Ellen D. B. Riggle (University of Kentucky), Robert E. Wickham (Palo Alto University), Sharon S. Rostosky (University of Kentucky), Esther D. Rothblum (San Diego State University and The Williams Institute) and Kimberly F. Balsam (Palo Alto University)
Same-sex marriage recognition at the state level was associated with more support from a spouse or partner and less psychological distress about an LGB identity, according to a recent study conducted prior to the recognition of marriage in all 50 US States. Furthermore, the study, entitled “Impact of Civil Marriage Recognition for Long Term Same-Sex Couples” by Ellen D. B. Riggle (University of Kentucky), Robert E. Wickham (Palo Alto University), Sharon S. Rostosky (University of Kentucky), Esther D. Rothblum (San Diego State University and The Williams Institute) and Kimberly F. Balsam (Palo Alto University), also finds that long-term same-sex relationships are beneficial to the health and well-being of couple members, regardless of marital status.
Key findings from the study include that state recognition of same-sex marriages is significantly associated with experiencing less motivation to conceal an LGB identity, less vigilance and fewer feelings of isolation and that marriage may also reinforce commitment within a relationship, leading couple members to feel more positively about their relationship with their partner.Read more
By Taylor N.T. Brown, Adam P. Romero, and Gary J. Gates
This study analyzes the extent of food insecurity experiences and participation in the federal Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) among LGBT adults and adults in same-sex couples. Using data from four representative, population-based surveys the authors find higher rates of these experiences among LGBT adults and adults in same-sex couples than among non-LGBT adults and adults in different-sex couples.Read more
By Amira Hasenbush, Ayako Miyashita, and Brad Sears
This report summarizes findings of the Legal Assessment of Needs Study (“LeAN Study”) – an online survey with 387 respondents who identified as people living with HIV/AIDS – for cisgender women living with HIV in Los Angeles County. We describe respondents’ legal needs, respondents’ experiences getting assistance for identified legal needs from both legal and non-legal sources, and barriers respondents faced in accessing assistance from both legal and non-legal sources. We describe differences and similarities between transgender women and all other respondents. Finally, we discuss how these legal needs may relate to health access and health status.Read more
By Andrew Park, Esq.
This paper sets out the theoretical framework for formulating an international development agenda for sexual and gender minorities. The audience for this paper includes researchers, development practitioners, human rights advocates and those in the LGBT community interested in the growing field of human and economic development.Read more