Discrimination

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    Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Montana

    Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    September 2017

    Approximately 22,300 LGBT people in Montana are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state law. Adding sexual orientation and gender identity to the state’s existing employment non-discrimination law would not be costly or burdensome for the state to enforce.

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    Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Idaho

    Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    September 2017

    Approximately 31,800 LGBT people in Idaho are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state law. Adding sexual orientation and gender identity to the state’s existing employment non-discrimination law would not be costly or burdensome for the state to enforce.

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    Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Wyoming

    Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    September 2017

    Approximately 15,100 LGBT people in Wyoming are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state law. Adding sexual orientation and gender identity to the state’s existing employment non-discrimination laws would not be costly or burdensome for the state to enforce.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Nebraska

    Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    August 2017

    Approximately 34,800 LGBT workers in Nebraska are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state law. Adding sexual orientation and gender identity to the state’s existing employment non-discrimination law would not be costly or burdensome for the state to enforce.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Indiana

    Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    August 2017

    Approximately 133,000 LGBT workers in Indiana are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state law. Adding sexual orientation and gender identity to the state’s existing employment non-discrimination laws would not be costly or burdensome for the state to enforce.

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    The Impact of Stigma and Discrimination against LGBT People in Texas

    by Christy Mallory, Taylor N.T. Brown, Stephen Russell & Brad Sears, April 2017

    Texas’s legal landscape and social climate contribute to an environment in which LGBT people are at risk of experiencing stigma and harassment. Stigma and discrimination can lead to economic instability and poorer health for LGBT people. These individual-level outcomes, in turn, can negatively impact the state, businesses, and the economy in a number of ways.

    The study documents the prevalence and impact on LGBT people of several forms of stigma and discrimination, including harassment and discrimination in employment, housing, and public accommodations; harassment and bullying in schools; and family rejection. The study also discusses the economic implications of such discrimination.

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    Discrimination, Diversity, and Development: The Legal and Economic Implications of North Carolina’s HB2

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    May 2016

    This report considers the legal and economic implications of North Carolina’s HB2. After considering the size of the LGBT population in North Carolina, and the legal landscape and social climate they face, this report estimates that HB2 directly puts at risk almost $5 billion just in terms of federal funding and business investment. In addition, HB2 contributes to a challenging environment for LGBT people that potentially costs the state tens to hundreds of millions of dollars each year.

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    The Fiscal Impact of North Carolina’s HB2

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    May 2016

    North Carolina’s law restricting access to restrooms based on sex listed on an individual’s birth certificate impacts an estimated 37,800 transgender people in the state, and puts at risk $4.8 billion in federal funding to state and local government entities. The law is in conflict with the gender identity non-discrimination requirements under several federal laws including Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, Executive Order 13672, Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, the Violence Against Women Act, the Affordable Care Act, the Equal Access Rule, and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Federal agencies that enforce the laws are authorized to suspend or terminate funding if recipients violate the non-discrimination requirements.

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    Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Regarding Establishing Paid Sick Leave for Federal Contractors, RIN 1235-AA13

    By Christy Mallory, Brad Sears, Adam Romero, and Jody Herman
    April 2016

    Williams Institute experts provided comments today on a proposed rule that implements Executive Order 13706, signed by President Barack Obama on September 2015, requiring federal contractors to provide paid sick leave to their employees. The rule will protect LGBT employees of federal contractors by ensuring that they have paid time off to meet the health care needs of themselves and their families.

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    LGBT in the South

    By Christy Mallory, Andrew Flores and Brad Sears
    March 2016

    Christy Mallory, Andrew Flores and Brad Sears head to Asheville, North Carolina, to the LGBT in the South Conference to discuss the Williams Institute’s research on LGBT demographics and discrimination in the Southern states. Thirty-five percent of the LGBT population in the United States lives in the South, where they are more likely to lack employment protections, earn less than $24,000 a year, and report that they cannot afford food or healthcare.

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    Evidence of Discrimination in Public Accommodations Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: An Analysis of Complaints Filed with State Enforcement Agencies, 2008-2014

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    February 2016

    LGBT people file public accommodations discrimination complaints based on sexual orientation and gender identity as frequently as people of color and women file complaints based on race and sex. This study examines complaints filed with state enforcement agencies based on sexual orientation or gender identity, race, and sex and adjusted them by the number of adults most likely to experience each type of discrimination – LGBT people, people of color, and women.

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    Evidence of Housing Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: An Analysis of Complaints Filed with State Enforcement Agencies, 2008-2014

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    February 2016

    LGBT people file housing discrimination complaints based on sexual orientation and gender identity as frequently as people of color and women file complaints based on race and sex. This study examines complaints filed with state enforcement agencies based on sexual orientation or gender identity, race, and sex and adjusts them by the number of adults most likely to experience each type of discrimination – LGBT people, people of color, and women. Data on discrimination complaints were collected from 18 of the 22 states that prohibited housing discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in North Dakota

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    December 2015

    Approximately 6,800 LGBT workers in North Dakota are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees has been documented in surveys, legislative testimony, the media, and in reports to community-based organizations. Many corporate employers and public opinion in North Dakota support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, three more complaints would be filed in North Dakota each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would most likely be negligible, and would not require additional court or administrative staff.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Louisiana

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    November 2015

    Approximately 88,400 LGBT workers in Louisiana are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees has been documented in surveys, media reports and complaints to community-based organizations. Many corporate employers and public opinion in Louisiana support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, 41 more complaints would be filed in Louisiana each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would most likely be negligible, and would not require additional court or administrative staff.

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    Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the Workplace: A Practical Guide

    By Brad Sears and Christy Mallory
    October 2015

    Two chapters summarizing the Williams Institute’s research were published in Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the Workplace: A Practical Guide. Co-authored by Brad Sears and Christy Mallory, the first chapter documents discrimination against LGBT people. The second chapter shows the business case for LGBT inclusion in the workplace.

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    Model Employment Policies for Federal Contractors Related to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

    By Christy Mallory, Adam Romero, and Brad Sears
    October 2015

    This document provides model policies for federal contractors, subcontractors, and federally-assisted contractors (collectively, “federal contractors”) to comply with Executive Order (“EO”) 11246 and other laws prohibiting sexual orientation and gender identity discrimination in employment. Federal contractors are prohibited by executive order from engaging in sexual orientation and gender identity discrimination. In addition, federal courts and agencies are increasingly concluding that Title VII’s prohibition on sex discrimination covers sexual orientation and gender identity discrimination and a growing number of state and local laws prohibit also such discrimination.

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    Evidence of Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: An Analysis of Complaints Filed with State Enforcement Agencies

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    October 2015

    LGBT people use sexual orientation and gender identity employment non-discrimination laws as frequently as people of color and women use race and sex non-discrimination laws. This study examines complaints filed based on sexual orientation or gender identity, race, and sex and adjusts them by the number of people in the workforce most likely to experience each type of discrimination – LGBT people, people of color and women.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Kansas

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    September 2015

    Approximately 55,000 LGBT workers in Kansas are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees has been documented in surveys, media reports and complaints to community-based organizations. Many corporate employers and public opinion in Kansas support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, 26 more complaints would be filed in Kansas each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would most likely be negligible, and would not require additional court or administrative staff.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Mississippi

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    September 2015

    Approximately 34,800 LGBT workers in Mississippi are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees has been documented in surveys, media reports, and court cases. Many corporate employers and public opinion in Mississippi support protections for LGBT people in the workplace.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in South Dakota

    By Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    August 2015

    About 19,900 LGBT workers in South Dakota are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Many corporate employers and public opinion in the state support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, nine more complaints would be filed in South Dakota each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would be negligible, and would not require additional court or administrative staff.

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