Census & LGBT Demographic Studies

  • Share Button

    Health and Well-being of Aging LGB Adults in California

    Soon Kyu Choi, Krystal Kittle, Ilan H. Meyer
    August 2018

    LGB older adults in California are as healthy as their straight counterparts. However, among LGB bisexuals and LGB Hispanics exhibit health disparities.

    Read more
  • Share Button

    Community Assessment of LGBTI Adults in Northeast Florida

    Taylor N.T. Brown, Kerith J. Conron
    June 2018

    The largest survey of LGBTI adults in Northeast Florida finds 75% of respondents have experienced “everyday discrimination,” such as being disrespected, threatened or harassed in the past 12 months.

    Read more
  • Share Button

    Characteristics and Mental Health of Gender Nonconforming Adolescents in California

    Bianca D.M. Wilson, Soon Kyu Choi, Jody Herman, Tara Becker, Kerith Conron
    December 2017

    A new report provides the first look at data collected from the California Health Interview Survey, which for the first time measured gender expression and mental health indicators among California’s youth population.

    Read more
  • Share Button

    Demographics and Health of California’s Transgender Adults

    Jody Herman, Bianca D.M. Wilson, Tara Becker
    October 2017

    A new report provides the first look at transgender data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), the nation’s largest state survey. The report reveals demographic characteristics of transgender adults in the state, such as population size, racial makeup and marital status, as well as disparities in their health status.

    Read more
  • Share Button

    Estimates of Marriages of Same-Sex Couples at the Two-Year Anniversary of Obergefell v. Hodges

    Adam P. Romero
    June 2017

    Over 150,000 same-sex couples have married since the U.S. Supreme Court extended marriage equality nationwide. In total, over 1.1 million LGBT adults are currently married to a same-sex partner.

    Read more
  • Share Button

    Incarceration Rate of LGB People Three Times the General Population

    Ilan H. Meyer, PhD, Andrew R. Flores, PhD, Lara Stemple, JD, Adam P. Romero, JD, Bianca D.M. Wilson, PhD, and Jody L. Herman, PhD., February 2017

    A new study by scholars at the Williams Institute found that sexual minorities are incarcerated at disproportionately high rates, and once incarcerated they are more likely to experience mistreatment, harsh punishment, and sexual victimization. Approximately 238,000 sexual minorities are incarcerated in the United States. The nationwide incarceration rate of sexual minorities was previously unknown.

    Read more
  • Share Button

    Food Insecurity and SNAP Participation in the LGBT Community

    By Taylor N.T. Brown, Adam P. Romero, and Gary J. Gates
    July 2016

    This study analyzes the extent of food insecurity experiences and participation in the federal Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) among LGBT adults and adults in same-sex couples. Using data from four representative, population-based surveys the authors find higher rates of these experiences among LGBT adults and adults in same-sex couples than among non-LGBT adults and adults in different-sex couples.

    Read more
  • Share Button

    How Many Adults Identify as Transgender in the United States

    By Andrew R. Flores, Jody L. Herman, Gary J. Gates, and Taylor N. T. Brown
    June 2016

    Utilizing data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), which includes representative state-level surveys, Williams Institute scholars provide up-to-date estimates of the percentage and number of adults who identify as transgender in the United States. Approximately 0.6% of adults in the United States, or 1.4 million individuals, identify as transgender.

    The study also provides the first ever state-level estimates of the number and percentage of adults who identify as transgender for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Differences exist in the percentage of adults who identify as transgender among the states, ranging from 0.3% in North Dakota to 0.8% in Hawaii. Differences by age also exist, with younger adults more likely to identify as transgender than older adults. An estimated 0.7% of adults ages 18 to 24, 0.6% of adults ages 25 to 64, and 0.5% of adults ages 65 and older identify as transgender.

    Read more
  • Share Button

    LGBT in the South

    By Christy Mallory, Andrew Flores and Brad Sears
    March 2016

    Christy Mallory, Andrew Flores and Brad Sears head to Asheville, North Carolina, to the LGBT in the South Conference to discuss the Williams Institute’s research on LGBT demographics and discrimination in the Southern states. Thirty-five percent of the LGBT population in the United States lives in the South, where they are more likely to lack employment protections, earn less than $24,000 a year, and report that they cannot afford food or healthcare.

    Read more
  • Share Button

    Estimates of Transgender Populations in States with Legislation Impacting Transgender People (Update)

    By Jody L. Herman, Christy Mallory, and Bianca D.M. Wilson

    Nearly 300,000 transgender youth and adults may be negatively impacted by legislation introduced in 15 states. These bills would limit access to single-sex restrooms and locker rooms at schools and in public places; limit protections based on gender identity; permit individuals and businesses to discriminate against transgender people based on religious and moral beliefs; and limit the ability to change certain vital records documents, such as birth certificates, or enforce the use of birth certificates to establish an individual’s sex for certain purposes. The report includes a brief description of each bill, which age groups it would affect, and how many transgender people we estimate live in each state.

    Read more
  • Share Button

    The LGBT Divide in California: A Look at the Socioeconomic Well-being of LGBT People in California

    By Angeliki Kastanis
    January 2016

    While LGBT people in California appear to be doing better than LGBT people nationwide, there is as much disparity within the state as throughout the rest of the United States. This report and data interactive explores disparities in the socioeconomic well-being of LGBT people throughout California, using data from the 2010 U.S. Census and the 2012-2014 Gallup Daily Tracking Survey. These regional patterns mirror those for non-LGBT people, which suggests that broader demographic factors also play an important role in LGBT vulnerability.

    Read more
  • Share Button

    Marriage and Same-sex Couples after Obergefell

    By Gary J. Gates and Taylor N.T. Brown
    November 2015

    This research brief analyzes the impact of the US Supreme Court’s decisions in Windsor v. United States (June 2013) and Obergefell v. Hodges (June 2015) on marriage by same-sex couples. In 2013, the year that the Windsor ruling was issued, an estimated 230,000 same-sex couples were married, 21% of all same-sex couples. By June 2015, when Obergefell was decided, 390,000 same-sex couples were married, 38% of all same-sex couples. As of October 2015, 486,000 same-sex couples were married, or 45% of all same-sex couples. The legal benefits and obligations of marriage now support these married couples, more than a quarter of whom are raising children, and the visibility of these families will likely continue to accelerate public support for marriage equality in the United States.

    Read more
  • Share Button

    Marriage and Family: LGBT Individuals and Same-sex Couples

    By Gary J. Gates
    October 2015

    As debates about marriage equality cool, researchers can explore new questions about LGBT family dynamics, including how parents divide labor in the absence of gender differences between spouses or partners and whether parent-child relationships change in ways that are consistent with gender norms when a parent transitions from one gender to another.

    Read more
  • Share Button

    An Estimated 780,000 Americans in Same-Sex Marriages

    By Gary Gates
    April 2015

    The number of legally married same-sex couples in the United States has tripled in the last year. The new estimate suggests that 390,000 out of nearly 1 million same-sex couples are married. Estimates from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey had the figure at 130,000. Even so, about one in six married same-sex couples live in states that currently don’t recognize their marriage. Results for this Gallup poll are based on telephone interviews conducted from January to April 2015 on the Gallup U.S. Daily survey. The study included a random sample of 80,568 adults ages 18 and older, living in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia.

    Read more
  • Share Button

    Comparing LGBT Rankings by Metro Area: 1990-2014

    By Gary Gates
    March 2015

    For two decades, San Francisco, Austin and Seattle residents have been among the most likely in the country to report that they are part of a same-sex couple or are LGBT. But growing social acceptance of LGBT people, even in conservative Utah, may explain why Salt Lake City now ranks among metro areas with the highest proportion of residents who identify as LGBT. This report analyzes data from a Gallup ranking of the 50 most populous U.S. metropolitan areas based on their percentage of residents who identified as LGBT in surveys conducted from 2012 to 2014 and 1990 Census data to rank the same metro areas by the number of same-sex couples per 1,000 households.

    Read more
  • Share Button

    Demographics of Same-sex Couples in Arkansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota: Analyses of the 2013 American Community Survey

    By Gary Gates
    March 2015

    Analyzing data from the 2013 US American Community Survey, this report considers the demographic, economic, and geographic characteristics of same-sex couples (married and unmarried), especially those raising children, in Arkansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. Comparisons are made with their different-sex counterparts.

    Read more
  • Share Button

    Human Services for Low-Income and At-Risk LGBT Populations: An Assessment of the Knowledge Base and Research Needs

    By Andrew Burwick, Gary Gates, Scott Baumgartner, Daniel Friend
    December 2014

    This report discusses what is known about low-income and at-risk LGBT people and their interactions with human services, especially services funded by ACF, and identifies important areas for further research. To provide context for the needs assessment findings, the assessment begins by describing the scope and estimated size of the LGBT population in the United States as well as factors that may contribute to social and economic disadvantages for LGBT people. The assessment then presents the framework and methods for the needs assessment and ultimately recommends potential areas for future research to enhance the knowledge base surrounding the human service needs of low-income and at-risk LGBT populations.

    Read more
  • Share Button

    Demographics of Same-sex Couples in Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, and Tennessee: Analyses of the 2013 American Community Survey

    By Gary J. Gates
    March 2015

    Analyzing data from the 2013 US American Community Survey, this report considers the demographic, economic, and geographic characteristics of same-sex couples (married and unmarried), especially those raising children, in Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, and Tennessee. Comparisons are made with their different-sex counterparts.

    Read more
  • Share Button

    Demographics of Married and Unmarried Same-sex Couples: Analyses of the 2013 American Community Survey

    By Gary J. Gates
    March 2015

    The US Census Bureau’s 2013 American Community Survey marked the first time that a large national demographic survey explicitly identified both married and unmarried same-sex couples, allowing for separate analyses of these two groups. Married same-sex couples are five times more likely to be raising adopted or foster children than their different-sex counterparts, and have more economic resources than unmarried same-sex couples. These analyses outlined compare the demographic, economic, and geographic characteristics of these two groups, especially those raising children. Comparisons are also made with married and unmarried different-sex couples.

    Read more
  • Share Button

    Same-Sex Couples in Puerto Rico: A demographic summary

    By Gary J. Gates
    January 2015

    Based on data from Census 2010, there are 6,614 same-sex couples living in Puerto Rico. The majority of same-sex couples are female (70%). In Puerto Rico, 97% of individuals in same-sex couples are Latino/a, compared to 98.8% of individuals in different-sex married couples. Fifteen percent of same-sex couples in the territory (17%) are raising children under age 18 in their homes. More than 710 same-sex-couple households in the territory are raising more than 1,250 children. Same-sex couples with children are nearly 9 times more likely to be fostering a child than different-sex married couples with children in Puerto Rico. The median annual household income of same-sex couples with children under age 18 in the home is 8% less than the median annual household income of different-sex married couples ($33,337 versus $36,367).

    Read more