This page contains state-specific research for the state of Texas:
- by Christy Mallory, Taylor N.T. Brown, Stephen Russell & Brad Sears, April 2017Texas’s legal landscape and social climate contribute to an environment in which LGBT people are at risk of experiencing stigma and harassment. Stigma and discrimination can lead to economic instability and poorer health for LGBT people. These individual-level outcomes, in turn, can negatively impact the state, businesses, and the economy in a number of ways. The study documents the prevalence and impact on LGBT people of several forms of stigma and discrimination, including harassment and discrimination in employment, housing, and public accommodations; harassment and bullying in schools; and family rejection. The study also discusses the economic implications of such discrimination.
- In their amici brief, the Williams Institute scholars provide the Texas Supreme Court with data on same-sex couples and their families in Texas and the United States, to provide the Court with a fuller picture of those who will be most directly impacted by the Court’s decision. Among other findings and research discussed in the brief, the data show that there are an estimated 83,000 same-sex couples all across Texas, and that approximately 35,000 of these couples were married as of 2015.
If Passed, Texas Senate Bill 6 Would Negatively Impact Over 125,000 Transgender Adults in Texas and Thousands of Transgender YouthSenate Bill 6 (SB 6) would require transgender people to use bathrooms in public schools, government buildings, and public universities based on “biological sex” and would pre-empt local nondiscrimination ordinances that allow transgender Texans to use the bathroom that corresponds with their gender identity. SB 6 would contribute to a discriminatory environment for LGBT people, and have a direct impact on 125,000 transgender adults and thousands of transgender youth in the state. In addition, SB 6 would conflict with federal laws, the laws of other states, and the policies of most large companies. As a result, Texas risks significant economic impacts.
- By Jordan Blair Woods, Brad Sears, Christy MallorySeptember 2016“Gay panic” and “transgender panic” defenses have been asserted by defendants in criminal trials throughout the U.S. since the 1960s. In these cases, defendants have argued that their violent behavior was a rational response to discovering that the victim was LGBT. The defenses are rooted in irrational fears based on homophobia and transphobia, and send the message that violence against LGBT people is understandable and acceptable. When successful, these defenses have resulted in murder charges being reduced to manslaughter or another lesser offense. To date, only one state, California, has banned defendants from asserting gay or transgender panic defense by statute. In this brief, Williams Institute scholars present model language, based on the language adopted in California, that other states may use to eliminate use of the defenses through legislation. The model legislation offers language to prohibit defendants from using gay and trans panic defenses under each of the major defenses theories of provocation, insanity/diminished capacity, and self-defense. In addition, the brief provides an overview of the ways in which the defenses have been asserted in trials throughout the last several decades, and evaluates potential constitutional challenges to state legislation eliminating use of the defenses.
- By Andrew R. Flores, Jody L. Herman, Gary J. Gates, and Taylor N. T. BrownJune 2016Utilizing data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), which includes representative state-level surveys, Williams Institute scholars provide up-to-date estimates of the percentage and number of adults who identify as transgender in the United States. Approximately 0.6% of adults in the United States, or 1.4 million individuals, identify as transgender. The study also provides the first ever state-level estimates of the number and percentage of adults who identify as transgender for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Differences exist in the percentage of adults who identify as transgender among the states, ranging from 0.3% in North Dakota to 0.8% in Hawaii. Differences by age also exist, with younger adults more likely to identify as transgender than older adults. An estimated 0.7% of adults ages 18 to 24, 0.6% of adults ages 25 to 64, and 0.5% of adults ages 65 and older identify as transgender.
- By Christy Mallory, Andrew Flores and Brad SearsMarch 2016Christy Mallory, Andrew Flores and Brad Sears head to Asheville, North Carolina, to the LGBT in the South Conference to discuss the Williams Institute's research on LGBT demographics and discrimination in the Southern states. Thirty-five percent of the LGBT population in the United States lives in the South, where they are more likely to lack employment protections, earn less than $24,000 a year, and report that they cannot afford food or healthcare.
- By Gary J. Gates and Taylor N.T. BrownMay 2015CSHB 3864, if enacted, would allow agencies licensed to make foster care or adoption placement decisions in the state of Texas to do so in accordance with their own sincerely-held religious beliefs. This memo provides estimates for the number of children being raised by LGB individuals and same-sex couples in Texas, along with estimates of the potential fiscal implications if this bill causes children to stay longer in the foster care system rather than being placed for adoption.
- By Christy Mallory and Brad SearsMay 2015By Christy Mallory, Brad Sears May 2015 About 429,000 LGBT workers in Texas are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees has been documented in surveys, complaints to community-based organizations, media reports, court ...
- By Gary J. GatesSeptember 2014Based on the Census 2010, there are 46,401 same-sex couples living in Texas. The majority of same-sex couples are female (52%). More than one in five same-sex couples in the state (23%) are raising children under age 18 in their homes. More than 10,860 same-sex-couple households in the state are raising nearly 18,700 children. Nearly one in three individuals in same-sex couples who are members of racial or ethnic minorities (31%) are raising a child under age 18, compared to 20% of their White counterparts. The median annual household income of same-sex couples with children under age 18 in the home is slightly lower than the median annual household income of comparable different-sex married couples ($73,005 versus $73,429).
- By E.G. Fitzgerald, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee BadgettJuly 2014Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Texas would generate an estimated $181.6 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 46,401 same-sex couples live in Texas. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that 50 percent (23,200 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years. Over 14,848 marriages would occur in the first year alone, and bring up to $116 million in revenue to the state of Texas that year.
Administrative Impact of Adding Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity to Texas’s Employment Non-Discrimination LawBy Christy Mallory & M.V. Lee BadgettDecember 2012Texas law does not prohibit employment discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity. Based on data from the U.S. Census, it is estimated that approximately 431,095 LGBT workers live in Texas. Adding sexual orientation and gender identity to the state’s non-discrimination law would offer protection to these workers, and would have a minimal impact on state agencies and the state budget.
- By Jody L. HermanApril 2012Voter ID laws in the following nine states may create substantial barriers for over 25,000 transgender voters in the November 2012 general election: Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, Mississippi, South Carolina, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin. All of these states have passed strict photo ID laws and could have them in place before the election season.
- MemorandumSeptember 2009This report documents public sector employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity in Texas. The report is part of a 15 chapter study that documents a widespread and persistent pattern of unconstitutional discrimination by state governments against LGBT people.
- By Adam P. Romero, Clifford J. Rosky, M.V. Lee Badgett, Gary J. GatesJanuary 2008Demographic and economic information about same-sex couples and same-sex couples raising children based on data from Census 2000.