ARKANSAS

This page contains state-specific research for the state of Arkansas:

Census Snapshot: 2010

Same-sex couples per 1,000 households by census tract (adjusted)

  • Model Legislation for Eliminating the Gay and Trans Panic Defenses

    By Jordan Blair Woods, Brad Sears, Christy Mallory
    September 2016
     
    “Gay panic” and “transgender panic” defenses have been asserted by defendants in criminal trials throughout the U.S. since the 1960s. In these cases, defendants have argued that their violent behavior was a rational response to discovering that the victim was LGBT. The defenses are rooted in irrational fears based on homophobia and transphobia, and send the message that violence against LGBT people is understandable and acceptable. When successful, these defenses have resulted in murder charges being reduced to manslaughter or another lesser offense. To date, only one state, California, has banned defendants from asserting gay or transgender panic defense by statute. In this brief, Williams Institute scholars present model language, based on the language adopted in California, that other states may use to eliminate use of the defenses through legislation. The model legislation offers language to prohibit defendants from using gay and trans panic defenses under each of the major defenses theories of provocation, insanity/diminished capacity, and self-defense. In addition, the brief provides an overview of the ways in which the defenses have been asserted in trials throughout the last several decades, and evaluates potential constitutional challenges to state legislation eliminating use of the defenses.

     
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  • How Many Adults Identify as Transgender in the United States

    By Andrew R. Flores, Jody L. Herman, Gary J. Gates, and Taylor N. T. Brown
    June 2016
     
    Utilizing data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), which includes representative state-level surveys, Williams Institute scholars provide up-to-date estimates of the percentage and number of adults who identify as transgender in the United States. Approximately 0.6% of adults in the United States, or 1.4 million individuals, identify as transgender. The study also provides the first ever state-level estimates of the number and percentage of adults who identify as transgender for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Differences exist in the percentage of adults who identify as transgender among the states, ranging from 0.3% in North Dakota to 0.8% in Hawaii. Differences by age also exist, with younger adults more likely to identify as transgender than older adults. An estimated 0.7% of adults ages 18 to 24, 0.6% of adults ages 25 to 64, and 0.5% of adults ages 65 and older identify as transgender.

     
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  • LGBT in the South

    By Christy Mallory, Andrew Flores and Brad Sears
    March 2016
     
    Christy Mallory, Andrew Flores and Brad Sears head to Asheville, North Carolina, to the LGBT in the South Conference to discuss the Williams Institute's research on LGBT demographics and discrimination in the Southern states. Thirty-five percent of the LGBT population in the United States lives in the South, where they are more likely to lack employment protections, earn less than $24,000 a year, and report that they cannot afford food or healthcare.

     
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  • Demographics of Same-sex Couples in Arkansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota: Analyses of the 2013 American Community Survey

    By Gary Gates
    March 2015
     
    Analyzing data from the 2013 US American Community Survey, this report considers the demographic, economic, and geographic characteristics of same-sex couples (married and unmarried), especially those raising children, in Arkansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. Comparisons are made with their different-sex counterparts.

     
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  • Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Arkansas

    By Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    January 2015
     
    None of the approximately 47,000 LGBT workers in Arkansas are explicitly protected from discrimination under local, state or federal laws. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, 22 more complaints would be filed in Arkansas each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would be negligible, and would not require additional court or administrative staff.

     
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  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Arkansas

    By Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014
     
    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Arkansas would generate an estimated $13.6 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 4,226 same-sex couples live in Arkansas. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (2,113 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring about $8.7 million in revenue to the state of Arkansas that year.

     
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  • Same-sex Couples in Arkansas: A demographic summary

    By Gary J. Gates
    October 2014
     
    Based on data from Census 2010, there are 4,226 same-sex couples living in Arkansas. These couples were identified in all but four of Arkansas’s counties. The majority of same-sex couples are female (55%). The average age of individuals in same-sex couples in Arkansas is nearly eight years younger than that of different-sex married couples—42.9 and 50.5 years old, respectively.

     
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  • Arkansas – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    Memorandum
    September 2009
     
    This report documents public sector employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity in Arkansas. The report is part of a 15 chapter study that documents a widespread and persistent pattern of unconstitutional discrimination by state governments against LGBT people.

     
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  • Arkansas - Census Snapshot: 2000

    By Adam P. Romero, Amanda K. Baumle, M.V. Lee Badgett, Gary J. Gates
    December 2007
     
    Demographic and economic information about same-sex couples and same-sex couples raising children based on data from Census 2000.

     
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