Workplace

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    The Impact of a Higher Minimum Wage on Poverty Among Same-Sex Couples

    By M. V. Lee Badgett, Alyssa Schneebaum
    April 2014

    An increase in the federal minimum wage to $10.10 per hour would lift at least 20,000 people in same-sex couples out of poverty. The study also finds that a minimum wage increase would reduce the poverty rate by 24 percent or more for couples. Poverty rates fall for the most vulnerable people in same-sex couples—particularly women and African Americans—as well as for children in households led by same-sex couples. For example, among all people in same-sex couples, 7 percent of people are African American, but they are 14 percent of the group of people in same-sex couples who would move out of poverty.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in South Carolina

    By Christy Mallory, Gregory K. Davis, Amira Hasenbush
    February 2014

    Approximately 66,000 LGBT workers in South Carolina are vulnerable to employment discrimination absent state legal protections. Four localities in South Carolina prohibit public sector employment discrimination against LGBT people. Only 18% of the state’s labor force works in those localities, and only a small proportion of those workers are employed by their local governments. Currently none of South Carolina’s LGBT-inclusive local ordinances prohibit discrimination in private employment.

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  • Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Ohio

    Amira Hasenbush, Christy Mallory
    January 2014

    Approximately 212,000 LGBT workers in Ohio are vulnerable to employment discrimination absent state or federal legal protections. At least 13 localities in Ohio prohibit private employment discrimination against LGBT people, yet 81 percent of the workforce remains unprotected by local ordinances. A statewide non-discrimination law would result in approximately 100 additional complaints being filed with the Ohio Civil Rights Commission each year.

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  • Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Utah

    Christy Mallory, Sarah Liebowitz
    January 2014

    Approximately 37,000 LGBT workers in Utah are vulnerable to employment discrimination absent state or federal legal protections. At least 17 localities in Utah prohibit private employment discrimination against LGBT people, yet 53 percent of the workforce remains unprotected by local ordinances. A statewide non-discrimination law would result in 17 additional complaints being filed with the Utah Anti-discrimination and Labor Division each year.

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  • Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in West Virginia

    By Christy Mallory, Sarah Liebowitz, Amira Hasenbush
    December 2013

    More than 25,000 LGBT workers in West Virginia continue to face widespread and persistent employment discrimination absent state or federal legal protections. Charleston, Morgantown, Lewisburg, Harpers Ferry, and Buckhannon have local ordinances that prohibit employment discrimination against LGBT people, but they do not provide as much protection for LGBT people as the state’s law that prohibits other types of discrimination. Approximately 95 percent of West Virginia’s workforce is not covered by a local ordinance prohibiting employment discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity.

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  • Gendered Homophobia and the Contradictions of Workplace Discrimination for Women in the Building Trades

    By Amy M. Denissen, Abigail C. Saguy
    December 2013

    This report examines how sexual orientation, gender presentation, race, and body size shape the constraints that tradeswomen face in the workplace. Based on interviews with tradeswomen working as construction workers, electricians, surveyors, sheet metal workers, carpenters, painters, and iron workers, the report found many in the field presumed that all women were lesbians and also found that homophobia and anti-gay slurs were used to marginalize gay and feminine men. These behaviors and assumptions help to maintain the trades as “men’s work”.

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  • Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Pennsylvania

    By Amira Hasenbush and Christy Mallory
    November 2013

    Pennsylvania’s 174,000 LGBT workers are vulnerable to employment discrimination absent state or federal legal protections. While 33 Pennsylvania localities provide some protections, 69 percent of the state’s workforce could suffer discrimination without recourse based on their actual or perceived sexual orientation or gender identity. Pennsylvania teachers, factory workers and law enforcement officers have all faced workplace discrimination based on their sexual orientation or gender identity. Uniform legal protections could provide more consistent and stronger recourse for the state’s workers at minimal administrative cost to the government.

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  • Employment, Housing, and Public Accommodations Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Missouri

    By Christy Mallory and Sarah Liebowitz
    November 2013

    The 160,000 LGBT adults in Missouri would benefit from an expanded state non-discrimination law that includes sexual orientation and gender identity. There is currently no Missouri law protecting LGBT people from discrimination in housing, employment, and public accommodations. Eighteen Missouri localities currently provide protection from sexual orientation discrimination by local ordinance, sixteen of which also provide protection against gender identity discrimination, but the ordinances are inconsistent, and less effective than a state-wide law would be.

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  • Discrimination against Law Enforcement Officers on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: 2000 to 2013

    By Brad Sears, Amira Hasenbush, Christy Mallory
    November 2013

    Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) law enforcement and corrections employees face pervasive discrimination. Analysis of recent cases reveals that discrimination often went beyond firing or demotion and included severe verbal, physical and sexual harassment. In some instances, LGBT officers even failed to receive support from fellow officers when making arrests. If passed, ENDA would provide legal recourse to officers who are treated differently based on their actual or perceived sexual orientation or gender identity.

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  • Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Diversity in Entertainment: Experiences and Perspectives of SAG-AFTRA Members

    By M.V. Lee Badgett, Jody L. Herman
    September 2013

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender actors face continued discrimination, even as workplace opportunities and conditions improve. One-third of respondents believed that casting directors, directors, and producers may be biased against LGBT performers, and more than half of LGB performers had heard anti-gay comments on set. Findings suggest LGBT performers may have substantial barriers to overcome in their search for jobs. Almost half of lesbian and gay respondents strongly agreed that producers and studio executives think LG performers are less marketable.

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  • Local Laws and Government Policies Prohibiting Discrimination Based on Gender Identity in Maryland

    By Christy Mallory, Sarah Liebowitz
    September 2013

    Gender identity discrimination protections in Maryland are extended through four local ordinances that are inconsistent, and provide more limited remedies than Maryland’s state non-discrimination laws. A gubernatorial executive order that applies only to state employees also exists. Notably, the remedies available under the local ordinances are generally more limited than those provided by state law, especially as it relates to monetary relief available through administrative proceedings, and state case law may further limit those remedies.

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  • The Business Impact of LGBT-Supportive Workplace Policies

    By M.V. Lee Badgett, Laura E. Durso, Angeliki Kastanis, Christy Mallory
    May 2013

    LGBT-supportive policies are linked to positive business-related outcomes. LGBT-supportive policies are also linked to greater job commitment, improved workplace relationships, increased job satisfaction, and improved health outcomes among LGBT employees. LGBT employees are also less likely to face discrimination in such environments and are more comfortable being open about their sexual orientation.

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  • Local Laws and Government Policies Prohibiting Discrimination Based on Gender Identity in New York

    By Christy Mallory, Sarah Liebowitz
    May 2013

    Amending New York’s Human Rights Law to explicitly prohibit discrimination based on gender identity would extend protections to an estimated 41 percent of New York’s population, including 23,800 transgender people. Currently, 59 percent of New Yorkers are covered by 12 local ordinances that are inconsistent, limited and, at times, weaker than the state human rights law. Five ordinances do not provide protection in all areas covered by the state human rights law.

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  • Economic Motives for Adopting LGBT-Related Workplace Policies (Updated)

    By Brad Sears, Christy Mallory
    October 2011

    Over ninety percent of the 100 top companies in the U.S.—the top 50 federal contractors and the top 50 Fortune 500 companies—have policies prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation, and 78% of the companies have policies prohibiting discrimination based on gender identity. In comparison to a 2011 study, based on 2010 data, there has been a 50% increase in the number of top federal contractors with gender identity non-discrimination policies and a 26% increase in the number of top Fortune 500 companies with gender identity non-discrimination policies.

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  • Urban Bias, Rural Sexual Minorities, and the Courts

    By Luke Boso
    February 2013

    This article, originally published in the UCLA Law Review, examines the role of courts in rural sexual minorities’ lives. It focuses first on state action, explaining that courts’ failure to apply heightened scrutiny to sexual orientation classifications harms rural sexual minorities uniquely in family and employment law contexts, where judges explicitly invoke antigay rural norms to justify discriminatory treatment.

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  • An Executive Order to Prevent Discrimination Against LGBT Workers

    By Lee Badgett, Crosby Burns, Nan D. Hunter, Jeff Krehely, Christy Mallory, and Brad Sears
    February 2013

    Research indicates that a federal executive order, prohibiting federal contractors from discriminating based on sexual orientation and gender identity, would have a positive impact on workers, businesses, and the federal government. Federal law currently provides no protection for LGBT workers despite high documented rates of discrimination and harassment.

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  • Administrative Impact of Adding Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity to Texas’s Employment Non-Discrimination Law

    By Christy Mallory & M.V. Lee Badgett
    December 2012

    Texas law does not prohibit employment discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity. Based on data from the U.S. Census, it is estimated that approximately 431,095 LGBT workers live in Texas. Adding sexual orientation and gender identity to the state’s non-discrimination law would offer protection to these workers, and would have a minimal impact on state agencies and the state budget.

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  • Testimony on S.811, The Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 2011

    By M. V. Lee Badgett
    June 12, 2012

    Official testimony delivered before the U.S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (HELP), Williams Institute Research Director M.V. Lee Badgett shared research of sexual orientation and gender identity discrimination in the workplace and the likely positive impact of the federal protections offered by a law like S. 811, the Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 2011 (ENDA).

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  • Evidence of Persistent and Pervasive Workplace Discrimination Against LGBT People: The Need for Federal Legislation Prohibiting Discrimination and Providing for Equal Employment Benefits

    By Jennifer Pizer, Christy Mallory, Brad Sears, Nan Hunter
    June 2012

    Millions of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) workers remain vulnerable to employment discrimination absent further federal protections against sexual orientation and gender identity discrimination.

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  • The Relationship between the EEOC’s Decision that Title VII Prohibits Discrimination Based on Gender Identity and the Enforcement of Executive Order 11246

    By Nan D. Hunter, Christy Mallory, and Brad Sears
    May 2012

    New analysis finds that a recent ruling from the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) that gender identity discrimination is unlawful will likely be extended to federal contractors.

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