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    Discrimination, Diversity, and Development: The Legal and Economic Implications of North Carolina’s HB2

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    May 2016

    This report considers the legal and economic implications of North Carolina’s HB2. After considering the size of the LGBT population in North Carolina, and the legal landscape and social climate they face, this report estimates that HB2 directly puts at risk almost $5 billion just in terms of federal funding and business investment. In addition, HB2 contributes to a challenging environment for LGBT people that potentially costs the state tens to hundreds of millions of dollars each year.

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    The Fiscal Impact of North Carolina’s HB2

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    May 2016

    North Carolina’s law restricting access to restrooms based on sex listed on an individual’s birth certificate impacts an estimated 37,800 transgender people in the state, and puts at risk $4.8 billion in federal funding to state and local government entities. The law is in conflict with the gender identity non-discrimination requirements under several federal laws including Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, Executive Order 13672, Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, the Violence Against Women Act, the Affordable Care Act, the Equal Access Rule, and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Federal agencies that enforce the laws are authorized to suspend or terminate funding if recipients violate the non-discrimination requirements.

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    Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Regarding Establishing Paid Sick Leave for Federal Contractors, RIN 1235-AA13

    By Christy Mallory, Brad Sears, Adam Romero, and Jody Herman
    April 2016

    Williams Institute experts provided comments today on a proposed rule that implements Executive Order 13706, signed by President Barack Obama on September 2015, requiring federal contractors to provide paid sick leave to their employees. The rule will protect LGBT employees of federal contractors by ensuring that they have paid time off to meet the health care needs of themselves and their families.

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    LGBT in the South

    By Christy Mallory, Andrew Flores and Brad Sears
    March 2016

    Christy Mallory, Andrew Flores and Brad Sears head to Asheville, North Carolina, to the LGBT in the South Conference to discuss the Williams Institute’s research on LGBT demographics and discrimination in the Southern states. Thirty-five percent of the LGBT population in the United States lives in the South, where they are more likely to lack employment protections, earn less than $24,000 a year, and report that they cannot afford food or healthcare.

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    Evidence of Discrimination in Public Accommodations Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: An Analysis of Complaints Filed with State Enforcement Agencies, 2008-2014

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    February 2016

    LGBT people file public accommodations discrimination complaints based on sexual orientation and gender identity as frequently as people of color and women file complaints based on race and sex. This study examines complaints filed with state enforcement agencies based on sexual orientation or gender identity, race, and sex and adjusted them by the number of adults most likely to experience each type of discrimination – LGBT people, people of color, and women.

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    Evidence of Housing Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: An Analysis of Complaints Filed with State Enforcement Agencies, 2008-2014

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    February 2016

    LGBT people file housing discrimination complaints based on sexual orientation and gender identity as frequently as people of color and women file complaints based on race and sex. This study examines complaints filed with state enforcement agencies based on sexual orientation or gender identity, race, and sex and adjusts them by the number of adults most likely to experience each type of discrimination – LGBT people, people of color, and women. Data on discrimination complaints were collected from 18 of the 22 states that prohibited housing discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in North Dakota

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    December 2015

    Approximately 6,800 LGBT workers in North Dakota are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees has been documented in surveys, legislative testimony, the media, and in reports to community-based organizations. Many corporate employers and public opinion in Louisiana support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, three more complaints would be filed in North Dakota each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would most likely be negligible, and would not require additional court or administrative staff.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Louisiana

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    November 2015

    Approximately 88,400 LGBT workers in Louisiana are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees has been documented in surveys, media reports and complaints to community-based organizations. Many corporate employers and public opinion in Louisiana support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, 41 more complaints would be filed in Louisiana each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would most likely be negligible, and would not require additional court or administrative staff.

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    Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the Workplace: A Practical Guide

    By Brad Sears and Christy Mallory
    October 2015

    Two chapters summarizing the Williams Institute’s research were published in Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the Workplace: A Practical Guide. Co-authored by Brad Sears and Christy Mallory, the first chapter documents discrimination against LGBT people. The second chapter shows the business case for LGBT inclusion in the workplace.

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    Model Employment Policies for Federal Contractors Related to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

    By Christy Mallory, Adam Romero, and Brad Sears
    October 2015

    This document provides model policies for federal contractors, subcontractors, and federally-assisted contractors (collectively, “federal contractors”) to comply with Executive Order (“EO”) 11246 and other laws prohibiting sexual orientation and gender identity discrimination in employment. Federal contractors are prohibited by executive order from engaging in sexual orientation and gender identity discrimination. In addition, federal courts and agencies are increasingly concluding that Title VII’s prohibition on sex discrimination covers sexual orientation and gender identity discrimination and a growing number of state and local laws prohibit also such discrimination.

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    Evidence of Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: An Analysis of Complaints Filed with State Enforcement Agencies

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    October 2015

    LGBT people use sexual orientation and gender identity employment non-discrimination laws as frequently as people of color and women use race and sex non-discrimination laws. This study examines complaints filed based on sexual orientation or gender identity, race, and sex and adjusts them by the number of people in the workforce most likely to experience each type of discrimination – LGBT people, people of color and women.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Kansas

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    September 2015

    Approximately 55,000 LGBT workers in Kansas are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees has been documented in surveys, media reports and complaints to community-based organizations. Many corporate employers and public opinion in Kansas support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, 26 more complaints would be filed in Kansas each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would most likely be negligible, and would not require additional court or administrative staff.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Mississippi

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    September 2015

    Approximately 34,800 LGBT workers in Mississippi are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees has been documented in surveys, media reports, and court cases. Many corporate employers and public opinion in Mississippi support protections for LGBT people in the workplace.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in South Dakota

    By Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    August 2015

    About 19,900 LGBT workers in South Dakota are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Many corporate employers and public opinion in the state support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, nine more complaints would be filed in South Dakota each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would be negligible, and would not require additional court or administrative staff.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Alaska

    By Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    July 2015

    About 13,100 LGBT workers in Alaska are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Many corporate employers and public opinion in the state support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, six more complaints would be filed in Alaska each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would be negligible, and would not require additional court or administrative staff.

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    The Impact of Wage Equality on Sexual Orientation Poverty Gaps

    By M. V. Lee Badgett and Alyssa Schneebaum
    June 2015

    This report uses data on same-sex couples in the 2012 American Community Survey to assess the impact on LGB and heterosexual poverty rates of several types of hypothetical changes: one that reduces the gender wage gap between men and women, one that reduces the wage gaps for people of color (the gap between white and black workers and the gap between Hispanic and non-Hispanic workers), and one that reduces the wage gap for gay and bisexual men compared with heterosexual men. These changes could come from new policies designed to address wage gaps, such as reductions in the gender wage gap resulting from a policy of paid family leave, or through more stringent enforcement of new or existing nondiscrimination laws.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Texas

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    May 2015

    By Christy Mallory, Brad Sears May 2015 About 429,000 LGBT workers in Texas are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees has been documented in surveys, complaints to community-based organizations, media reports, court cases, and other sources. Many corporate employers and public opinion in the state support protections for LGBT …

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    The Cost of Employment Discrimination against Transgender Residents of Florida

    By Taylor N.T. Brown and Jody Herman
    April 2015

    The State of Florida spends more than a half million dollars each year as the result of employment discrimination against transgender residents. Currently, 10 counties and 14 cities in Florida have ordinances prohibiting discrimination based on gender identity in public and private sector employment, but nearly 22,000 transgender adult residents are not covered by these laws. Employment discrimination against transgender adults in Florida costs the state an estimated $570,000 annually in state Medicaid expenditures alone.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Montana

    By Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    March 2015

    About 13,400 LGBT workers in Montana are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees has been documented in surveys, complaints to community-based organizations, media reports, court cases, and other sources. Many corporate employers and public opinion in the state support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, six more complaints would be filed in Montana each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would be negligible, and would not require additional court or administrative staff.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Wyoming

    By Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    March 2015

    About 8,900 LGBT workers in Wyoming are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees in Wyoming has recently been documented in surveys, court cases, and other sources. Many corporate employers and public opinion in the state support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, four more complaints would be filed in Wyoming each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would be negligible, and would not require additional court or administrative staff.

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