Race & Ethnicity

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    Mental Health and Suicidality Among Racially/Ethnically Diverse Sexual Minority Youths

    By Wendy B. Bostwick, Ilan Meyer, et al.
    July 2014

    Sexual minority youth had higher prevalence than heterosexual youth of each of the six outcomes studied, including self-harm, feeling sad, and suicide ideation, planning, and attempts. The study shows that 22.8 percent of sexual minority youth compared with 6.6 percent of heterosexual youth had attempted suicide in the year prior to being surveyed. Notably, the odds of suicide ideation, planning, and attempt among sexual minority youth varied by race/ethnicity.

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    Protective School Climates and Reduced Risk for Suicide Ideation in Sexual Minority Youth

    By Mark L. Hatzenbuehler, Michelle Birkett, Aimee Van Wagenen, Ilan H. Meyer
    April 2014

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth living in states and cities with more protective school climates are significantly less likely to report one-year suicidal thoughts than LGB youths living in states and cities with less protective school climates. Of schools in eight national cities and states, about half provided Gay-Straight Alliances and LGBT inclusive health curricula, and almost all provided anti-bullying policies prohibiting harassment based on sexual orientation or gender identity.

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  • Preschool selection considerations and experiences of school mistreatment among lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents

    By Abbie E. Goldberg, JuliAnna Z. Smith
    March 2014

    Lesbian, Gay, or Bisexual parents of preschoolers may be particularly sensitive to family, racial and sexual diversity issues as they evaluate and select preschools for their children. Additionally, heterosexual adoptive parent families may be especially sensitive to adoption-related stigma and exclusion. Early childhood educators should recognize the growing diversity of contemporary families and consider adoption, family structure, and race as important components of curriculum development.

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  • Race/Ethnicity, Gender and Socioeconomic Wellbeing of Individuals in Same-sex Couples

    By Angeliki Kastanis, Bianca Wilson
    February 2014

    Similar patterns of racial disparities in income and employment exist among individuals in same-sex and different-sex couples. The report also found that racial/ethnic minority individuals in same-sex couples tend to live in areas where there are higher proportions of individuals of their own race or ethnicity. Among same-sex couples, African-American, Latino, American-Indian and Alaskan Native respondents have lower incomes, lower college completion rates and higher unemployment rates than White, Asian and Pacific Islander respondents.

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  • Identifying and Serving LGBTQ Youth: Case Studies of Runaway and Homeless Youth Grantees

    By Andrew Burwick, Vanessa Oddo, Laura Durso, Daniel Friend, Gary Gates
    February 2014

    A study published by Mathematica and co-authored by the Williams Institute examines services for LGBTQ runaway and homeless youth (RHY). Focusing on four local agencies receiving grants from the Administration for Children and Families’ RHY Program, it aimed to learn about programs’ strategies for identifying and serving LGBTQ RHY, the challenges programs face in understanding and addressing the needs of this population, and potential areas for future research.

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  • LGBT African-American Individuals and African-American Same-Sex Couples

    By Angeliki Kastanis, Gary J. Gates
    October 2013

    An estimated 1,018,700 or 3.7 percent of African-American adults consider themselves lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) and 34 percent of African-American same-sex couples are raising children. Currently, the estimated 84,000 African-American individuals in same-sex couples tend to live in areas where there are higher proportions of African-Americans. A quarter of African-American same-sex couples live in Georgia, New York, North Carolina, and Maryland. Overall, LGBT African-Americans have higher unemployment rates when compared to their non-LGBT counterparts.

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  • LGBT Latino/a Individuals and Latino/a Same-Sex Couples

    By Angeliki Kastanis, Gary J. Gates
    October 2013

    An estimated 1.4 million or 4.3 percent of Latino/a adults consider themselves LGBT and 29 percent of Latino/a same-sex couples are raising children. The estimated 146,100 Latino/a individuals in same-sex couples tend to live in areas where there are higher proportions of Latinos/as. A third of Latino/a same-sex couples live in New Mexico, California, and Texas. Nationally, Latino/a individuals in same-sex couples are faring better than Latinos/as in different-sex couples. Twenty-six percent of all Latinos/as in same-sex couples have completed a college degree or more, compared to 14 percent of Latinos/as in different-sex couples.

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  • LGBT Asian and Pacific Islander Individuals and Same-Sex Couples

    By Angeliki Kastanis, Gary J. Gates
    September 2013

    An estimated 325,000 or 2.8% of all Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adults in the United States identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT). Nationally, API LGBT individuals have lower rates of employment and academic achievement than their non-LGBT counterparts. Nearly 33,000 API LGBT individuals are in same-sex couples, a third of which live in California, Hawaii and New York. Further analysis reveals vulnerable LGBT subgroups including Pacific Islanders and Native Hawaiians, female same-sex couples, and couples where both partners are API.

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  • Provider Perspectives on the Needs of Gay and Bisexual Male and Transgender Youth of Color

    By Laura E. Durso, Angeliki Kastanis, Bianca D.M. Wilson, Ilan H. Meyer
    August 2013

    Los Angeles-area gay, bisexual, and questioning male and transgender (GBTQ) youth of color face individual, organizational, and structural barriers to educational, health and social services. Both schools and service providers struggle to provide institutionally-supported GBTQ-friendly services. And while some individuals within health and social service agencies were equipped to support GBTQ youth, organizations lacked institutional policies, practices or training opportunities to better serve this population.

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  • New Patterns of Poverty in the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Community

    By M.V. Lee Badgett, Laura E. Durso, Alyssa Schneebaum
    June 2013

    As poverty rates for nearly all populations increased during the recession, lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) Americans remained more likely to be poor than heterosexual people. Gender, race, education and geography all influence poverty rates among LGB populations, and children of same-sex couples are particularly vulnerable to poverty. The study updates and extends a similar, first-of-its kind Williams Institute report released in 2009 that was based on data from the first half of the last decade

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  • LGBT Adult Immigrants in the United States

    By Gary J. Gates
    March 2013

    There are approximately 267,000 LGBT-identified individuals among the adult undocumented immigrant population and an estimated 637,000 LGBT-identified individuals among the adult documented immigrant population. The report finds that approximately 71 percent of undocumented LGBT adults are Hispanic and 15 percent of undocumented LGBT adults are Asian or Pacific Islander. Relative to all undocumented immigrants, LGBT undocumented immigrants are more likely to be male and are younger.

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  • LGBT Parenting in the United States

    By Gates J. Gates
    February 2013

    As many as six million American children and adults have an LGBT parent. Same-sex couple parents and their children are more likely to be racial and ethnic minorities. An estimated 39 percent of individuals in same-sex couples with children under age 18 at home are non-white, as are half of their children. States with the highest proportions of same-sex couples raising biological, adopted or step-children include Mississippi (26%), Wyoming (25%), Alaska (23%), Idaho (22%), and Montana (22%).

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  • Sexual Orientation Based Violence in Hong Kong

    By Holning S. Lau, Rebecca Stotzer
    February 2013

    Using survey responses from 614 lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals in Hong Kong, this article reports prevalence estimates of experiences with violence based on sexual orientation. Among respondents, 60.3 percent reported being victims of only non-physical forms of violence, 9.4 percent reported experience with both non-physical and physical violence, and 0.9 percent reported experience with only physical violence.

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  • Religious Affiliation, Internalized Homophobia, and Mental Health in Lesbians, Gay Men, and Bisexuals

    By David M. Barnes, Ilan H. Meyer
    October 2012

    Latino and Black lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) men and women are more religious than their White counterparts. This greater religiosity was true by every measure, including likelihood to attend religious services, engage in prayer, and identify a religious affiliation. Attending religious services in non-affirming settings compared to attending in affirming settings or not attending at all was linked in the study with higher levels of internalized homophobia.

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  • Same-sex Couples in Census 2010: Race and Ethnicity

    By Gary J. Gates
    April 2012

    Newly released Census 2010 data highlight unique aspects of racial and ethnic diversity within same-sex couples. They are more likely than their different-sex counterparts to be interracial or interethnic and couples that include a racial or ethnic minority are more likely to be raising children. Fully a third of same-sex couples that include an Hispanic partner are raising children.

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  • Interactions of Transgender Latina Women with Law Enforcement

    By Frank H. Galvan and Mohsen Bazargan
    April 2012

    A new report, funded by the Williams Institute, reveals high levels of reported harassment and assault of Latina transgender women by law enforcement agencies and highlights steps that police departments should take to improve relations with the transgender community. The report is based on interviews with 220 Latina transgender women from the Los Angeles area.

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  • Same-sex Couples and Immigration in the United States

    Gary J. Gates and Craig Konnoth
    November 2011

    There are an estimated 28,500 binational same-sex couples and nearly 11,500 same-sex couples in which neither partner is a U.S. citizen. None of these 40,000 couples are eligible to use the immigration preferences available to different-sex spouses. These couples are raising almost 25,000 children.

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  • “We’d Be Free”: Narratives of Life Without Homophobia, Racism, or Sexism

    By Ilan Meyer, et al.
    August 13, 2011

    This study examined the effects of exposure to everyday experiences of inequality. It finds that stigma and social inequality can increase stress and reduce well-being for LGB people, even in the absence of major traumatic events such as hate crimes and discrimination.

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  • Testimony on the Demographic Characteristics of Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Latinos and Latinos in Same-Sex Couples

    By Craig J. Konnoth
    July 2011

    Many of the issues that Latino Lesbian Gay Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) individuals face are insufficiently understood. This testimony explains that existing demographic data about Latino LGB individuals show that these individuals, who constitute the greatest number of same-sex partners of color in the United States, differ significantly from their non-Latino LGB counterparts, as well as from straight Latino individuals in numerous ways.

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  • Discharges Under the Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Policy: Women and Racial/Ethnic Minorities

    By Gary J. Gates
    September 2010

    This research brief considers the historic impact of the US military’s “Don’t Ask/Don’t Tell” (DADT) policy on women and racial/ethnic minorities.

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