Marriage & Couples Rights

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    New Data from Marriage Licenses for Same-Sex Couples

    By M.V. Lee Badgett, Christy Mallory
    December 2014

    Administrative data from the states that recognized marriage and other relationship statuses for same-sex couples in early 2014 show that female couples are more likely to formalize their relationships than male couples; and that same-sex couples overall dissolve their legal relationships at a lower rate than different-sex couples. The data also suggest that the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in the Windsor case in 2013 likely contributed to a marked increase in the number of same-sex couples marrying.

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    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Puerto Rico

    By Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Puerto Rico would generate an estimated $17.2 million in spending to the Commonwealth’s economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 4,742 same-sex couples live in Puerto Rico. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (2,371 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring about $11 million in revenue to Puerto Rico that year.

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    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Wisconsin

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Wisconsin would generate an estimated $34.3 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 9,179 same-sex couples live in Wisconsin. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (4,590 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring over $21.9 million in revenue to the state of Wisconsin that year.

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    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Nebraska

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Nebraska would generate an estimated $8.0 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 2,356 same-sex couples live in Nebraska. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (1,178 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring about $5.2 million in revenue to the state of Nebraska that year.

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    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Arkansas

    By Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Arkansas would generate an estimated $13.6 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 4,226 same-sex couples live in Arkansas. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (2,113 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring about $8.7 million in revenue to the state of Arkansas that year.

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    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Alabama

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Alabama would generate an estimated $21.7 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 6,582 same-sex couples live in Alabama. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (3,291 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring about $13.9 million in revenue to the state of Alabama that year.

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    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Louisiana

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Louisiana would generate an estimated $28.3 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 8,076 same-sex couples live in Louisiana. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (4,038 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring about $18.1 million in revenue to the state of Louisiana that year.

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    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Mississippi

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Mississippi would generate an estimated $10.8 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 3,484 same-sex couples live in Mississippi. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (1,742 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring about $6.9 million in revenue to the state of Mississippi that year.

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    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Kansas

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Kansas would generate an estimated $14.1 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 4,009 same-sex couples live in Kansas. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (2,005 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring about $9 million in revenue to the state of Kansas that year.

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    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in North Dakota

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in North Dakota would generate an estimated $1.9 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 559 same-sex couples live in North Dakota. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (280 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring about $1.2 million in revenue to the state of North Dakota that year.

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    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in South Dakota

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in South Dakota would generate an estimated $2.4 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 714 same-sex couples live in South Dakota. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (357 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring about $1.5 million in revenue to the state of South Dakota that year.

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    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Montana

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Montana would generate an estimated $4.5 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 1,348 same-sex couples live in Montana. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (674 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring about $2.9 million in revenue to the state of Montana that year.

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    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples In Idaho

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Idaho would generate an estimated $6.8 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 2,042 same-sex couples live in Idaho. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (1,021 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring nearly $4.4 million in revenue to the state of Idaho that year.

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    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in South Carolina

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in South Carolina would generate an estimated $25.2 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 7,214 same-sex couples live in South Carolina. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (3,607 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring about $16 million in revenue to the state of South Carolina that year.

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    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in North Carolina

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in North Carolina would generate an estimated $64.4 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 18,309 same-sex couples live in North Carolina. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (9,155 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring about $41.2 million in revenue to the state of North Carolina that year.

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    Friend-of-the-Court Briefs Submitted by Williams Institute Scholar in Arkansas Supreme Court Marriage Case

    By Gary J. Gates
    October 2014

    Williams Institute Distinguished Scholar Gary Gates submitted an amicus brief in the Arkansas Supreme Court in the case of Wright v. Arkansas concerning the legality of a constitutional ban on marriage for same-sex couples. There are 4,226 same-sex couples living in the state. More than half of individuals in same-sex couples who are members of racial or ethnic minorities (56%) are raising a child under age 18. The median annual household income of same-sex couples with children under age 18 in the home is 33% lower than the median annual household income of comparable different-sex married couples ($42,429 versus $63,744).

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    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Alaska

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Alaska would generate an estimated $8 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 1,228 same-sex couples live in Alaska. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (614 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring over $5.1 million in revenue to the state of Alaska that year.

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    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in West Virginia

    By Justin M. O’Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in West Virginia would generate an estimated $9 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, 2,848 same-sex couples live in West Virginia. Of those couples, it is estimated that 50 percent, or 1,424 couples, would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. Over 911 marriages would occur in the first year alone, and bring over $5.8 million in revenue to the state of West Virginia that year.

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    LGB Families and Relationships: Analyses of the 2013 National Health Interview Survey

    By Gary J. Gates
    September 2014

    The addition of a sexual orientation identity measure to the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) offers a new data source to consider characteristics of families and explore differences among those led by same-sex and different-sex married and unmarried couples and LGB individuals who are not married or cohabiting. These analyses consider differences and similarities across these groups with regard to demographic characteristics including gender, age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, geographic location, and child-rearing.

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    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Wyoming

    By Justin M. O’Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    September 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Wyoming would generate an estimated $2.4 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, 657 same-sex couples live in Wyoming. Of those couples, it is estimated that 50 percent, or 329 couples, would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. Over 211 marriages would occur in the first year alone, and bring over $1.6 million in revenue to the state of Wyoming that year.

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