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    Lack of Equal Treatment and Access to Equal Opportunity for LGTBQ People in the United States

    By Andrew Park, Firass Halawi
    September 2014

    The lack of protections against employment discrimination and inattention to the causes and patterns of LGBT poverty constitute human rights violations. Based on social science research and legal analysis, the United States is failing to comply with its international human rights commitments, particularly in the areas of employment, health, youth and violence against LGBT people. In its last review, the United States accepted recommendations to address discrimination against LGBT people in order to comply with international human rights standards.

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    Submission to the Australian Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Committee Regarding the Recognition of Foreign Marriages Bill 2014

    By M. V. Lee Badgett
    August 2014

    In her testimony submitted to the Australian Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Committee, Williams Distinguished Scholar M. V. Lee Badgett highlights three issues involving the likely impact of Recognition of the Foreign Marriages Bill 2014. Based on experiences in the United States and the Netherlands, allowing same-sex couples to marry has had positive effects on couples, their children, and their families. Data from both countries also shows that civil unions are not a good substitute for marriage.

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  • Amici Brief: Constitutional Court of the Republic of Colombia

    By Abbie E. Goldberg, Nanette K. Gartrell, Gary J. Gates
    August 2014

    Williams Institute scholars filed an amici brief in two cases regarding adoption rights of same-sex couples that are pending before the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Colombia. Research indicates lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) parents and their children are functioning well, despite confronting discrimination in a variety of social contexts—including healthcare, legal and school systems. The two cases before the Court — Turandot v. Defensor Segundo de Familia de Rionegro and In the Matter of Diego Andrés Prada Vargas —concern the constitutionality of law barring adoption rights of same-sex couples.

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  • Universal Periodic Review of the United States: Sub-group on Civil Rights and Racial and Ethnic Discrimination Issues

    By Andrew Park, Adam P. Romero
    July 2014

    Based on State Department testimony by Williams Institute scholars, social science research and legal analysis suggest the United States is failing to comply with international human rights standards in relation to LGBT people. While the U.S. has seen significant progress in recent years, a majority of states fail to provide legal protections for LGBT people and families, despite evidence of persistent and pervasive discrimination, economic vulnerability, and violence and sexual assault.

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  • Declaration of Ilan H. Meyer, in the case of Bayev v. Russia

    A statement submitted to the European Court of Human Rights in Bayev v. Russia, a case challenging the Russian law banning “homosexual propaganda.” Lesbians and gays living in Russia are at greater risk of being exposed to violence, harassment, and other violations of basic human rights because of the law. Daily stigmas and prejudicial incidents can lead to increased rates of mental and physical disorders.

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  • The Right to Relate: A Lecture on the Importance of “Orientation” in Comparative Sexual Orientation Law

    By Kees Waaldijk
    February 2014

    “The Right to Relate” can be seen as the common theme in all issues of sexual orientation law. This right was first articulated—as an aspect of the right to respect for private life— by the European Commission of Human Rights in 1976, and can be used as the common denominator in the comparative study of all laws in the world that are anti-homosexual or same-sex-friendly.

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  • Yogyakarta Principles

    December 2013

    Together with the civil society organizations and the Williams Institute at UCLA School of Law, the Montenegrin Government promotes the Yogyakarta Principles on the Application of International Human Rights Law. The Yogyakarta Principles address a broad range of human rights standards and their application to issues of sexual orientation and gender identity.

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  • Sexual Orientation Based Violence in Hong Kong

    By Holning S. Lau, Rebecca Stotzer
    February 2013

    Using survey responses from 614 lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals in Hong Kong, this article reports prevalence estimates of experiences with violence based on sexual orientation. Among respondents, 60.3 percent reported being victims of only non-physical forms of violence, 9.4 percent reported experience with both non-physical and physical violence, and 0.9 percent reported experience with only physical violence.

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  • Submission to the Australian Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Committee Regarding the Marriage Equality Amendment Bill 2010

    By M.V. Lee Badgett
    March 2012

    Memorandum submitted to the Australian Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Committee regarding the Marriage Equality Amendment Bill 2010.

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  • The Economic Impact of Extending Marriage to Same-Sex Couples in Australia

    By M.V. Lee Badgett, Jennifer Smith
    February 2012

    Extending marriage to Australian same-sex couples would boost the country’s economy by $161 million over three years. This estimate is based on a projection that 54 percent (or 17,820) of Australia’s approximately 33,000 same-sex couples would marry.

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  • Brown Abroad: An Empirical Analysis of Foreign Judicial Citation and the Metaphor of Cosmopolitan Conversation

    By Sheldon Bernard Lyke
    January 2012

    The article illustrates the ways in which justices on both the New Zealand Court of Appeal and the Constitutional Court of South Africa have used the landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education in discussions of same-sex marriage.

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  • Case of Atala Riffo and Children vs. Chile

    Translated by Stephanie Plotin
    March 2012

    Official Summary Issued By the Inter-American Court of the Decision

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  • Same-sex Couples and Immigration in the United States

    Gary J. Gates and Craig Konnoth
    November 2011

    There are an estimated 28,500 binational same-sex couples and nearly 11,500 same-sex couples in which neither partner is a U.S. citizen. None of these 40,000 couples are eligible to use the immigration preferences available to different-sex spouses. These couples are raising almost 25,000 children.

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  • Separate and Not Equal: Bi-National Same–Sex Couples

    M.V. Lee Badgett, Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 2011, vol. 36 No. 4
    November 2011

    In an article published recently in Signs, Williams Institute Research Director Lee Badgett discusses her research on bi-national same-sex couples living in the Netherlands.

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  • Cross-National Differences in Attitudes towards Homosexuality

    By Tom W. Smith
    May 2011

    In five rounds of surveys between 1988 and 2008 the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) has asked questions about homosexuality (

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  • Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation: A Hong Kong Study

    By Holning Lau, Rebecca L. Stotzer
    June 2010

    This survey of 792 self-identified sexual orientation minorities in Hong Kong examined (1) the prevalence of sexual orientation-based discrimination, (2) risk factors associated with experiencing discrimination, and (3) the relationship between experiencing employment discrimination and psychological outcomes. Nearly one-third of respondents reported discrimination. Reports of discrimination were associated with negative psychological outcomes. This paper discusses how these results reinforce calls for legislative action.

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  • Irish Men and Women in Same-Sex Partnerships in the United States

    By Gary J. Gates
    March 2008

    The Irish government has announced its intention to enact a civil partnership law that would for the first time offer formal legal recognition to same-sex couples in the Republic of Ireland. The 2006 Irish Census revealed that there were 2,090 same-sex cohabiting couples in the country.

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  • Assessing the Harms of Noncompliance with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights’ Protections of Sexual Minorities

    By Holning Lau, Esq.
    July 13, 2006

    This report identifies four ways in which the United States is noncompliant with antidiscrimination standards defined by the United Nations Human Rights Committee.

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