Economic Impact Reports

  • TX-img

    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Texas

    By E.G. Fitzgerald, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    July 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Texas would generate an estimated $181.6 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 46,401 same-sex couples live in Texas. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that 50 percent (23,200 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years. Over 14,848 marriages would occur in the first year alone, and bring up to $116 million in revenue to the state of Texas that year.

    Read more
  • NV-Census-Map

    Estimating the Economic Boost of Extending Marriage to Same-Sex Couples in Nevada

    By M.V. Lee Badgett, Christy Mallory
    June 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Nevada would generate an additional $23 million to $53 million in spending to the state. According to 2010 U.S. Census, the state of Nevada has about 7,140 resident in same-sex relationships. Of those couples, 50 percent or 3,570 couples would chose to marry within the first 3 years, a pattern that has been witnessed in other states. As a result, about 2,300 marriages would occur in this first year alone; adding an additional $14 to $34 million in revenue to the state that year.

    Read more
  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Arizona

    By E.G. Fitzgerald, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    June 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Arizona would generate an estimated $61.9 million in spending to the state economy. This economic boost would add $5.1 million in sales tax revenue to the state coffer and spending related to same-sex couples’ wedding ceremonies and celebrations could generate up to 517 full- and part-time jobs in the state. According to 2010 U.S. Census data, 15,817 same-sex couples live in Arizona. Of those couples, an estimated 50 percent or 7,909 couples would choose to marry in the first three years.

    Read more
  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Pennsylvania

    By E.G. Fitzgerald, M.V. Lee Badgett
    May 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Pennsylvania would generate between $65 million to $92.1 million to the state and local economy of Pennsylvania over the course of three years, with a $42 million to $58.9 million boost in the first year alone. This economic boost would add $4.2 million to $5.8 million in sales tax revenue to state and local coffers. Spending related to same-sex couples’ wedding ceremonies and celebrations would also generate 812 to 1,142 full- and part-time jobs in the state.

    Read more
  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Indiana

    By E.G. Fitzgerald, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    May 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Indiana would generate over $39 million in spending to the state economy. According to 2010 U.S. Census, 11,074 same-sex couples live in Indiana. Of those couples, an estimated 50 percent (or 5,537 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years. Over 3,000 marriages would occur in the first year alone, and bring up to $25 million in revenue to the state that year. Spending related to same-sex couples’ wedding ceremonies and celebrations would generate 564 full- and part-time jobs in the state.

    Read more
  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Extending Marriage to Same-Sex Couples in Utah

    By E.G. Fitzgerald, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    April 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Utah would generate up to $15.5 million in spending to the state economy. According to 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 3,909 same-sex couples live in Utah. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that 50 percent (1,955 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years.

    Read more
  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Extending Marriage to Same-Sex Couples in Virginia

    By M.V. Lee Badgett, Sheila Nezhad, Christy Mallory
    April 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Virginia would generate up to $60 million in spending to the state economy. According to 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 14,244 same-sex couples live in Virginia. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that 50 percent (7,122 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. Nearly 5,000 marriages would occur in the first year alone, and bring up to $38 million in revenue to the state of Virginia that year.

    Read more
  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Oregon

    By Erin G. Fitzgerald, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    April 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Oregon would generate nearly $50 million in spending to the state economy. According to 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 11,773 same-sex couples live in Oregon. Of those couples, the report estimates that 50 percent (5,887 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. Nearly 4,000 marriages would occur in the first year alone, and bring over $30 million in revenue to the state of Oregon that year.

    Read more
  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Colorado

    By Lee Badgett, Christy Mallory
    April 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Colorado would generate $50 million in spending to the state and local economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, 12,424 same-sex couples live in Colorado. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that 50% (6,212 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. Of the couples that will marry, 64% of those marriages will occur during the first year, 21% in the second year and 15% in the third years.

    Read more
  • The Fiscal Impact of Extending Marriage to Same-Sex Couples in New Mexico

    By Erin Fitzgerald and Steven K. Homer
    December 2013

    Extending marriage rights to same-sex couples in New Mexico would bring an estimated $20.4 million to the state economy over the first three years. According to the most recent U.S. Census, there are currently 5,825 same-sex couples living in New Mexico. Of those couples, 50 percent or an estimated 2,913 marriage licenses would be issued within the first three years of the passage of marriage equality.

    Read more
  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage Equality in Delaware

    By Angeliki Kastanis and M.V. Lee Badgett
    May 2013

    Extending marriage rights to same-sex couples in Delaware would bring an estimated $7 million to the state and local economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, 2,646 same-sex couples live in Delaware. Of those couples, 50 percent, or approximately 767 marriage licenses, would be issued within the first three years after the passage of marriage equality, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The report also takes into account the Delaware couples that may have married in other states.

    Read more
  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage Equality in Rhode Island

    By Angeliki Kastanis, M.V. Lee Badgett
    May 2013

    Extending marriage rights to same-sex couples in Rhode Island would bring an estimated $7 million to the state and local economy, including $5.5 million in additional wedding spending and $1.5 million in tourism expenditures made by out-of-town guests. Based on Rhode Island’s rates of 7 percent sales tax and 6 percent hotel and lodging tax, $530,000 in tax revenue will be generated for the state in the first three years same-sex couples may marry. The boost in travel spending will generate approximately 26 jobs in the state.

    Read more
  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage Equality in Minnesota

    By Angeliki Kastanis, M.V. Lee Badgett
    April 2013

    Extending marriage rights to same-sex couples in Minnesota would bring an estimated $42 million to the state and local economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, 10,207 same-sex couples live in Minnesota. Total state and local tax revenue would rise by $3 million, including an estimated $128,000 in local taxes. As seen in Iowa, same-sex couples from neighboring states that do not allow same-sex couples to marry may travel to Minnesota and generate additional spending on wedding and tourism-related goods and services.

    Read more
  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage Equality in Illinois

    By Angeliki Kastanis, M.V. Lee Badgett
    March 2013

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Illinois would generate up to $103 million in spending to the state and local economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, 23,049 same-sex couples live in Illinois. Of those couples, the report estimates that 50% (11,525 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. Of the couples that will marry, 64% of those marriages will occur during the first year, 21% in the second year and 15% in the third year.

    Read more
  • The Economic Impact of Extending Marriage to Same-Sex Couples in Australia

    By M.V. Lee Badgett, Jennifer Smith
    February 2012

    Extending marriage to Australian same-sex couples would boost the country’s economy by $161 million over three years. This estimate is based on a projection that 54 percent (or 17,820) of Australia’s approximately 33,000 same-sex couples would marry.

    Read more
  • The Economic Impact of Extending Marriage to Same-Sex Couples in Washington State

    By Angeliki Kastanis, M.V. Lee Badgett, Jody L. Herman
    January 2012

    Total spending by resident same-sex couples and their guests will add an estimated $88 million boost to the state and local economy over the course of three years. This economic boost is likely to add $8 million in tax revenue to state and local coffers.

    Read more
  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage Equality in Iowa: Sales Tax

    By Angeliki Kastanis, M.V. Lee Badgett, Jody L. Herman
    December 2011

    Total spending on wedding arrangements and tourism by same-sex couples and their guests added an estimated $12 to $13 million boost to the state and local economy of Iowa. Economic boost is likely to have added $850,000 to $930,000 in tax revenue to state and local coffers.

    Read more
  • Spending on Weddings of Same-Sex Couples in the United States

    By Craig J. Konnoth, M.V. Lee Badgett, Brad Sears
    July 2011

    The extension of marriage rights to same-sex couples in various jurisdictions will generate economic gains for the businesses in those jurisdictions due to increased spending on weddings. This memorandum estimates the total spending by resident and out-of-state couples on their weddings in states that recognize marriage equality for same-sex couples, in the first year after equal marriage rights were introduced.

    Read more
  • The Impact of Civil Unions on Hawai`i’s Economy and Government

    By Sumner La Croix, Kimberly Burnett
    February 2011

    This report provides quantitative and qualitative measures of the impact of same-sex civil unions on the Hawai`i economy, Hawai`i businesses, and the State of Hawai`i’s budget. Research concludes that the legalization of civil unions in Hawai`i will have only a very minimal impact on any aspect of Hawai`i’s economy and state government operations.

    Read more
  • The Economic Value of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples

    By M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2010

    In the five states and the District of Columbia that allow same-sex couples to marry, tens of thousands same-sex couples have taken advantage of the opportunity. The demand for marriage shows same-sex couples find marriage to be a valuable status, and studies of same-sex couples suggest they are quite similar to different-sex couples in both the economic and social needs that lead them to marry.

    Read more