Census & LGBT Demographic Studies

  • WI-Census-Map

    Same-Sex Couples in Wisconsin: A demographic summary

    By Gary J. Gates
    August 2014

    Based on the Census 2010, there are 9,179 same-sex couples living in Wisconsin. The majority of same-sex couples are female (57%). One in five same-sex couples in the state (20%) are raising children under age 18 in their homes. More than 1,790 same-sex-couple households in the state are raising nearly 3,200 children. One in three individuals in same-sex couples who are members of racial or ethnic minorities (36%) are raising a child under age 18, compared to 17% of their White counterparts. The median annual household income of same-sex couples with children under age 18 in the home is 43% lower than the median annual household income of comparable different-sex married couples ($46,778 versus $82,767).

    Read more
  • IN-img

    Same-Sex Couples in Indiana: A demographic summary

    By Gary J. Gates
    August 2014

    Based on the Census 2010, there are 11,074 same-sex couples living in Indiana. The majority of same-sex couples are female (56%). Nearly one in five same-sex couples in the state (17%) are raising children under age 18 in their homes. More than 1,830 same-sex-couple households in the state are raising nearly 3,200 children. One in four individuals in same-sex couples who are members of racial or ethnic minorities (26%) are raising a child under age 18, compared to 14% of their White counterparts. The median annual household income of same-sex couples with children under age 18 in the home is 4% lower than the median annual household income of comparable different-sex married couples ($72,156 versus $74,957).

    Read more
  • Friend-of-the-Court Briefs Submitted by Williams Institute Scholars in 6th Circuit Marriage Case

    May 2014

    Williams Institute scholars, along with leading women’s legal organizations, filed an amicus brief in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit in the case of Obergefell v. Himes. The amicus brief argues that, like laws that discriminate based on sex, laws that discriminate based on sexual orientation warrant heightened judicial scrutiny because, among other considerations, such laws are based on overbroad gender stereotypes. Williams Institute Distinguished Scholar, Gary Gates, also submitted a brief on the demographic of same-sex couples and their families in Ohio.

    Read more
  • Same-sex Couples in Ohio: A demographic summary

    By Gary J. Gates
    April 2014

    Based on the Census 2010, there are 19,684 same-sex couples living in Ohio. The majority of same-sex couples are female (54%). Nearly one in five same-sex couples in the state (19%) are raising children under age 18 in their homes. More than 3,760 same-sex-couple households in the state are raising nearly 6,800 children. Nearly three in ten individuals in same-sex couples who are members of racial or ethnic minorities (29%) are raising a child under age 18, compared to 18% of their White counterparts.

    Read more
  • Same-sex Couples in Virginia: A demographic summary

    By Gary J. Gates
    April 2014

    Based on the 2010 Census, there are 14,243 same-sex couples living in Virginia. The majority of same-sex couples are female (51%). Nearly one fifth of individuals in same-sex couples in Virginia are members of racial or ethnic minorities. Latinos and Latinas comprise 11% of individuals in same-sex couples and 6% of those in different-sex married couples. The portion of African-Americans is 4% among those in same-sex couples and 12% among those in different-sex married couples. Asians, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders comprise 3% of individuals in same-sex couples and 7% of those in different-sex married couples.

    Read more
  • Race/Ethnicity, Gender and Socioeconomic Wellbeing of Individuals in Same-sex Couples

    By Angeliki Kastanis, Bianca Wilson
    February 2014

    Similar patterns of racial disparities in income and employment exist among individuals in same-sex and different-sex couples. The report also found that racial/ethnic minority individuals in same-sex couples tend to live in areas where there are higher proportions of individuals of their own race or ethnicity. Among same-sex couples, African-American, Latino, American-Indian and Alaskan Native respondents have lower incomes, lower college completion rates and higher unemployment rates than White, Asian and Pacific Islander respondents.

    Read more
  • Same-sex Couples in Hawaii: A demographic summary

    By Gary J. Gates
    October 2013

    Based on the Census 2010, there are 3,239 same-sex couples living in Hawaii. These couples were identified in all of Hawaii’s counties. The majority of same-sex couples are male (53%), accounting for 1,715 couples. There are 1,524 female couples. The average age of individuals in couples in Hawaii is nearly the same for those in same-sex and different-sex couples, 51.6and 50.2 years old, respectively.

    Read more
  • Same-sex couples in Nevada: A demographic summary

    By Gary J. Gates
    October 2013

    Based on Census 2010, there are 7,140 same-sex couples living in Nevada. These couples were identified in all but one of Nevada’s counties. The majority of same-sex couples are male (53%), accounting for 3,768 couples. There are 3,372 female couples. The average age of individuals in same-sex couples in Nevada is more than four years younger than that of different-sex couples—43.8 and 48.2 years old, respectively. Nearly a third of individuals in same-sex couples in Nevada are members of racial or ethnic minorities.

    Read more
  • LGBT African-American Individuals and African-American Same-Sex Couples

    By Angeliki Kastanis, Gary J. Gates
    October 2013

    An estimated 1,018,700 or 3.7 percent of African-American adults consider themselves lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) and 34 percent of African-American same-sex couples are raising children. Currently, the estimated 84,000 African-American individuals in same-sex couples tend to live in areas where there are higher proportions of African-Americans. A quarter of African-American same-sex couples live in Georgia, New York, North Carolina, and Maryland. Overall, LGBT African-Americans have higher unemployment rates when compared to their non-LGBT counterparts.

    Read more
  • LGBT Latino/a Individuals and Latino/a Same-Sex Couples

    By Angeliki Kastanis, Gary J. Gates
    October 2013

    An estimated 1.4 million or 4.3 percent of Latino/a adults consider themselves LGBT and 29 percent of Latino/a same-sex couples are raising children. The estimated 146,100 Latino/a individuals in same-sex couples tend to live in areas where there are higher proportions of Latinos/as. A third of Latino/a same-sex couples live in New Mexico, California, and Texas. Nationally, Latino/a individuals in same-sex couples are faring better than Latinos/as in different-sex couples. Twenty-six percent of all Latinos/as in same-sex couples have completed a college degree or more, compared to 14 percent of Latinos/as in different-sex couples.

    Read more
  • LGBT Asian and Pacific Islander Individuals and Same-Sex Couples

    By Angeliki Kastanis, Gary J. Gates
    September 2013

    An estimated 325,000 or 2.8% of all Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adults in the United States identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT). Nationally, API LGBT individuals have lower rates of employment and academic achievement than their non-LGBT counterparts. Nearly 33,000 API LGBT individuals are in same-sex couples, a third of which live in California, Hawaii and New York. Further analysis reveals vulnerable LGBT subgroups including Pacific Islanders and Native Hawaiians, female same-sex couples, and couples where both partners are API.

    Read more
  • Infographic: HAWAI’I

    October 2013

    A new infographic by the Williams Institute shows there are more than 53,900 LGBT individuals in Hawai’i and approximately 3,200 same-sex couples in the state. Extending marriage rights to same-sex couples in Hawai’i could affect nearly 54,000 LGBT individuals and more than 3,000 couples living in the state. It would also bring up to $217 million to the state economy.

    Read more
  • New Patterns of Poverty in the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Community

    By M.V. Lee Badgett, Laura E. Durso, Alyssa Schneebaum
    June 2013

    As poverty rates for nearly all populations increased during the recession, lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) Americans remained more likely to be poor than heterosexual people. Gender, race, education and geography all influence poverty rates among LGB populations, and children of same-sex couples are particularly vulnerable to poverty. The study updates and extends a similar, first-of-its kind Williams Institute report released in 2009 that was based on data from the first half of the last decade

    Read more
  • INFOGRAPHIC: % of Same-sex Couples Raising Children in Top Metro Areas (MSAs)

    May 2013

    Same-sex couples raising children live in areas all across the country. Many of these areas, including Salt Lake City, Memphis and San Antonio, are located in states that currently have a constitutional amendment banning marriage for same-sex couples. Mississippi has the highest percentage of same-sex couples raising children at 26 percent. Top metro areas are comprised of a large population center and adjacent communities that are economically integrated with that center.

    Read more
  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage Equality in Delaware

    By Angeliki Kastanis and M.V. Lee Badgett
    May 2013

    Extending marriage rights to same-sex couples in Delaware would bring an estimated $7 million to the state and local economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, 2,646 same-sex couples live in Delaware. Of those couples, 50 percent, or approximately 767 marriage licenses, would be issued within the first three years after the passage of marriage equality, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The report also takes into account the Delaware couples that may have married in other states.

    Read more
  • Demographics and LGBT Health

    By Gary J. Gates
    March 2013

    New article published in the Journal of Health and Social Behavior, examines recent studies documenting health disadvantages for same-sex couples compared with different-sex married couples that cannot be fully explained by differences in socioeconomic status. The 2012 U.S. presidential election saw, for the first time, the election of a major party candidate who publicly supported same-sex couples’ right to marry. Exit polling from that election found that 49 percent of voters supported legal marriage for same-sex couples in their states, compared with 46 percent who opposed.

    Read more
  • LGBT Adult Immigrants in the United States

    By Gary J. Gates
    March 2013

    There are approximately 267,000 LGBT-identified individuals among the adult undocumented immigrant population and an estimated 637,000 LGBT-identified individuals among the adult documented immigrant population. The report finds that approximately 71 percent of undocumented LGBT adults are Hispanic and 15 percent of undocumented LGBT adults are Asian or Pacific Islander. Relative to all undocumented immigrants, LGBT undocumented immigrants are more likely to be male and are younger.

    Read more
  • Same Sex and Different Sex Couples in the American Community Survey: 2005-2011

    By Gary J. Gates
    February 2013

    This research brief summarizes the demographic characteristics of same-sex couples from 2005 through 2011 using the US Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS) and compares them to different-sex couples. The majority of same-sex couples in the US are female (a change from 2005 when the majority were male), about one in five same-sex couples are raising children under age 18, and nearly one in ten men in same-sex couples.

    Read more
  • LGBT Parenting in the United States

    By Gates J. Gates
    February 2013

    As many as six million American children and adults have an LGBT parent. Same-sex couple parents and their children are more likely to be racial and ethnic minorities. An estimated 39 percent of individuals in same-sex couples with children under age 18 at home are non-white, as are half of their children. States with the highest proportions of same-sex couples raising biological, adopted or step-children include Mississippi (26%), Wyoming (25%), Alaska (23%), Idaho (22%), and Montana (22%).

    Read more
  • Gallup Special Report: New Estimates of the LGBT Population in the United States

    By Gary J. Gates, Frank Newport
    February 2013

    The percentage of adults in the United States who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) ranges from 1.7% in North Dakota to 5.1% in Hawaii and 10% in the District of Columbia. While LGBT communities are clearly present in every state in the union, their visibility is generally higher in states with greater levels of social acceptance and LGBT supportive legal climates.

    Read more