Research

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Montana

    By Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    March 2015

    By Christy Mallory, Brad Sears March 2015 About 13,400 LGBT workers in Montana are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees has been documented in surveys, complaints to community-based organizations, media reports, court cases, and other sources. Many corporate employers and public opinion in the state support protections for …

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Wyoming

    By Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    March 2015

    About 8,900 LGBT workers in Wyoming are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees in Wyoming has recently been documented in surveys, court cases, and other sources. Many corporate employers and public opinion in the state support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, four more complaints would be filed in Wyoming each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would be negligible, and would not require additional court or administrative staff.

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    Comparing LGBT Rankings by Metro Area: 1990-2014

    By Gary Gates
    March 2015

    For two decades, San Francisco, Austin and Seattle residents have been among the most likely in the country to report that they are part of a same-sex couple or are LGBT. But growing social acceptance of LGBT people, even in conservative Utah, may explain why Salt Lake City now ranks among metro areas with the highest proportion of residents who identify as LGBT. This report analyzes data from a Gallup ranking of the 50 most populous U.S. metropolitan areas based on their percentage of residents who identified as LGBT in surveys conducted from 2012 to 2014 and 1990 Census data to rank the same metro areas by the number of same-sex couples per 1,000 households.

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    Demographics of Same-sex Couples in Arkansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota: Analyses of the 2013 American Community Survey

    By Gary Gates
    March 2015

    Analyzing data from the 2013 US American Community Survey, this report considers the demographic, economic, and geographic characteristics of same-sex couples (married and unmarried), especially those raising children, in Arkansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. Comparisons are made with their different-sex counterparts.

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    Human Services for Low-Income and At-Risk LGBT Populations: An Assessment of the Knowledge Base and Research Needs

    By Andrew Burwick, Gary Gates, Scott Baumgartner, Daniel Friend
    December 2014

    This report discusses what is known about low-income and at-risk LGBT people and their interactions with human services, especially services funded by ACF, and identifies important areas for further research. To provide context for the needs assessment findings, the assessment begins by describing the scope and estimated size of the LGBT population in the United States as well as factors that may contribute to social and economic disadvantages for LGBT people. The assessment then presents the framework and methods for the needs assessment and ultimately recommends potential areas for future research to enhance the knowledge base surrounding the human service needs of low-income and at-risk LGBT populations.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Florida

    By Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    March 2015

    About 328,000 LGBT workers in Florida are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, 154 more complaints would be filed in Florida each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would be negligible.

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    Friend-of-the-Court Briefs Submitted by Williams Institute Scholars to U.S. Supreme Court in Marriage Cases

    Williams Institute scholars filed two amici briefs with the U.S. Supreme Court in four cases concerning the constitutionality of state bans on marriage for same-sex couples. The Court is scheduled to hear oral arguments on April 28, 2015 and its decision is expected in June 2015.

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    Demographics of Same-sex Couples in Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, and Tennessee: Analyses of the 2013 American Community Survey

    By Gary J. Gates
    March 2015

    Analyzing data from the 2013 US American Community Survey, this report considers the demographic, economic, and geographic characteristics of same-sex couples (married and unmarried), especially those raising children, in Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, and Tennessee. Comparisons are made with their different-sex counterparts.

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    Demographics of Married and Unmarried Same-sex Couples: Analyses of the 2013 American Community Survey

    By Gary J. Gates
    March 2015

    The US Census Bureau’s 2013 American Community Survey marked the first time that a large national demographic survey explicitly identified both married and unmarried same-sex couples, allowing for separate analyses of these two groups. Married same-sex couples are five times more likely to be raising adopted or foster children than their different-sex counterparts, and have more economic resources than unmarried same-sex couples. These analyses outlined compare the demographic, economic, and geographic characteristics of these two groups, especially those raising children. Comparisons are also made with married and unmarried different-sex couples.

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    Discrimination and Harassment by Law Enforcement Officers in the LGBT Community

    By Christy Mallory, Amira Hasenbush, Brad Sears
    March 2015

    Discrimination and harassment by law enforcement based on sexual orientation and gender identity is an ongoing and pervasive problem in LGBT communities. Such discrimination impedes effective policing in these communities by breaking down trust, inhibiting communication and preventing officers from effectively protecting and serving the communities they police. While a patchwork of state, local and federal laws provides some protection against certain forms of discrimination, there is no nationwide federal statute that comprehensively and consistently prohibits discrimination based on actual or perceived sexual orientation and gender identity.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Kentucky

    By Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    February 2015

    Approximately 80,000 LGBT workers in Kentucky are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Seven localities in Kentucky prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity in private and public sector employment, and state government employees are protected. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, 38 more complaints would be filed in Kentucky each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would be negligible, and would not require additional court or administrative staff.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Michigan

    By Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    February 2015

    By Christy Mallory, Brad Sears February 2015 Approximately 184,000 LGBT workers in Michigan are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees in Michigan has recently been documented in surveys, complaints to community-based organizations, media reports, and other sources. Many corporate employers and public opinion in the state support protections …

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    Dutch Adolescents from Lesbian-Parent Families: How Do They Compare to Peers with Heterosexual Parents and What is the Impact of Homophobic Stigmatization?

    By Loes van Rijn-van Gelderen, Henry M.W. Bos, Nanette K. Gartrell
    February 2015

    Dutch adolescents with lesbian parents do not show any more problem behavior than those with heterosexual parents. Yet even though in 2001 the Netherlands was the first country to legalize same-sex marriage, some adolescents in this study reported being stigmatized for having lesbian mothers. The more homophobic stigmatization they faced, the more problem behavior they showed.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Virginia

    By Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    January 2015

    LGBT workers in Virginia are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Three localities in Virginia prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation in private and public sector employment; only one locality prohibits discrimination based on gender identity. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, 5 more complaints would be filed in Virginia each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would be negligible, and would not require additional court or administrative staff.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Oklahoma

    By Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    January 2015

    Approximately 62,000 LGBT workers in Oklahoma are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Seven cities in Oklahoma prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation in public sector employment, but do not include gender identity or private sector employment. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, 29 more complaints would be filed in Oklahoma each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would be negligible, and would not require additional court or administrative staff.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Arkansas

    By Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    January 2015

    None of the approximately 47,000 LGBT workers in Arkansas are explicitly protected from discrimination under local, state or federal laws. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, 22 more complaints would be filed in Arkansas each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would be negligible, and would not require additional court or administrative staff.

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    Same-Sex Couples in Puerto Rico: A demographic summary

    By Gary J. Gates
    January 2015

    Based on data from Census 2010, there are 6,614 same-sex couples living in Puerto Rico. The majority of same-sex couples are female (70%). In Puerto Rico, 97% of individuals in same-sex couples are Latino/a, compared to 98.8% of individuals in different-sex married couples. Fifteen percent of same-sex couples in the territory (17%) are raising children under age 18 in their homes. More than 710 same-sex-couple households in the territory are raising more than 1,250 children. Same-sex couples with children are nearly 9 times more likely to be fostering a child than different-sex married couples with children in Puerto Rico. The median annual household income of same-sex couples with children under age 18 in the home is 8% less than the median annual household income of different-sex married couples ($33,337 versus $36,367).

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Arizona

    By Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    January 2015

    About 119,000 LGBT workers in Arizona are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, 56 more complaints would be filed in Arizona each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would be negligible, and would not require additional court or administrative staff.

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    Williams Institute Hosts Research Meeting in Nepal

    The Williams Institute, in conjunction with the Blue Diamond Society, held a two day conference in Kathmandu, Nepal, to advance the knowledge and understanding of sexual and gender minorities. Nepal was the first country in the world to legally recognize a third gender. After a failed government attempt to conduct a national census of third gender Nepalese, the United Nations Development Program supported the Williams Institute and The Blue Diamond Society to design and conduct a survey of sexual and gender minorities in Nepal.

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    Williams Expert Presents Research in Lima, Peru // Experta del Williams Institute presenta investigación en Lima, Perú

    By M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    M.V. Lee Badgett, Distinguished Scholar at the Williams Institute and director of the Center for Public Policy and Administration at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, visited Lima Peru in October, 2014, to present findings of research indicating a link between exclusion, economic growth. Badgett has become the foremost expert on the relationship between exclusion of LGBT people, economic growth and business productivity. She recently co-authored a multi-country study on the link between equality laws and economic growth.

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