Research

  • nhis-2014

    LGB Families and Relationships: Analyses of the 2013 National Health Interview Survey

    By Gary J. Gates
    September 2014

    The addition of a sexual orientation identity measure to the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) offers a new data source to consider characteristics of families and explore differences among those led by same-sex and different-sex married and unmarried couples and LGB individuals who are not married or cohabiting. These analyses consider differences and similarities across these groups with regard to demographic characteristics including gender, age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, geographic location, and child-rearing.

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    LGBT Demographics: Comparisons among population-based surveys

    By Gary J. Gates
    September 2014

    Estimates of the percent of adults who identified as LGB or LGBT varied across surveys from between 2.2% and 4.0%, implying that between 5.2 million and 9.5 million individuals aged 18 and older are LGBT. Despite this variation in prevalence estimates, the analyzed surveys show many demographic similarities among respondents who choose to identify as LGB or LGBT. LGBT identity was more common among younger populations. LGBT populations generally shared the racial and ethnic characteristics of non-LGBT individuals. Adults were more likely to identify as LGBT in the Northeast and West than in the South and Midwest.

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  • Testimony: California Legislature Assembly Bill AB 2501

    By Jordan Blair Woods
    September 2014

    On September 27, 2014, California Governor Jerry Brown signed into law AB 2501, legislation that prohibits the use of “gay panic” and “transgender panic” defenses to reduce murder charges to manslaughter in criminal trials. The passage of this bill makes California the first state in the country to prohibit the use of gay and transgender panic defenses through legislation. AB 2501 ensures that defendants cannot use gay and transgender panic defenses in an attempt to lower a charge from murder to manslaughter or to escape conviction in California.

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  • Best Practices for Asking Questions to Identify Transgender and Other Gender Minority Respondents on Population-Based Surveys

    By GenIUSS Group
    September 2014

    Most federally-supported population-based surveys do not include measures to identify transgender and other gender minority respondents. This report assesses current practices in sex and gender-related population research and offers strategies for establishing consistent, scientifically rigorous procedures for gathering information relevant to the needs and experiences of transgender people and other gender minorities.

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  • UPDATE: Effects of Lifting Blood Donation Bans on Men who Have Sex with Men

    By Ayako Miyashita, Gary J. Gates
    September 2014

    If the current FDA blood ban on men who have sex with men (MSM) were lifted, an estimated 360,600 men would likely donate 615,300 additional pints of blood each year. Lifting the ban would increase the total annual blood supply in the U.S. by 2 to 4 percent and could be used to help save the lives of more than 1.8 million people. If MSM who have not had sexual contact with another man in the past twelve months were permitted to donate, the report estimates that 185,800 additional men are likely to donate 317,000 additional pints of blood each year.

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  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Wyoming

    By Justin M. O’Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    September 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Wyoming would generate an estimated $2.4 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, 657 same-sex couples live in Wyoming. Of those couples, it is estimated that 50 percent, or 329 couples, would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. Over 211 marriages would occur in the first year alone, and bring over $1.6 million in revenue to the state of Wyoming that year.

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  • Lack of Equal Treatment and Access to Equal Opportunity for LGTBQ People in the United States

    By Andrew Park, Firass Halawi
    September 2014

    The lack of protections against employment discrimination and inattention to the causes and patterns of LGBT poverty constitute human rights violations. Based on social science research and legal analysis, the United States is failing to comply with its international human rights commitments, particularly in the areas of employment, health, youth and violence against LGBT people. In its last review, the United States accepted recommendations to address discrimination against LGBT people in order to comply with international human rights standards.

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  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Missouri

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    September 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Missouri would generate an estimated $36.3 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 10,557 same-sex couples live in Missouri. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (5,279couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring over $23.2 million in revenue to the state of Missouri that year.

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  • The Potential Impact of Voter Identification Laws on Transgender Voters in the 2014 General Election

    By Jody L. Herman
    September 2014

    Ten states’ strict voter ID laws may create substantial barriers to voting and possible disenfranchisement for transgender voters in the November 2014 general election. Of the estimated 84,000 transgender people eligible to vote in these states, more than 24,000 individuals who have transitioned have no identification or record that accurately reflect their gender. Transgender people of color, youth, students, people with low incomes, and people with disabilities are likely overrepresented in this group.

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  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Georgia

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    August 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Georgia would generate an estimated $78.8 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 21,318 same-sex couples live in Georgia. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (10,659 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring over $50.4 million in revenue to the state of Georgia that year.

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  • New Report: Sexual and Gender Minority Youth in Foster Care

    By Bianca D.M. Wilson, Khush Cooper, Angel Kastanis, Sheila Nezhad
    August 2014

    LGBTQ foster youth are twice as likely to report poor treatment and more likely to live in group homes and to have more foster care placements. Approximately 1 in 5, or 1,400 foster youth in Los Angeles County, home to the nation’s largest population of foster youth, identify as LGBTQ. The finding is twice the estimated percentage of youth not in foster care who are LGBTQ. Over 86% of foster youth in Los Angeles are Latino, Black, or API.

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  • Healthcare Disadvantages and Discrepancies for LGBT Adults

    Gary J. Gates
    August 26, 2014

    LGBT adults are more likely than their non-LGBT counterparts to lack health insurance coverage. LGBT adults, particularly LGBT women, are more likely than non-LGBT individuals to report that they do not have a personal doctor. Among all adults, 29% of LGBT individuals did not have doctor compared to 21% of non-LGBT individuals. Among women, the gap was 29% for LGBT and 16% for non-LGBT. The differences in insurance coverage persist even when taking into account differences between LGBT and non-LGBT adults with regard to age, sex, race and ethnicity, educational attainment, state of residence, and population density.

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  • Financial, Social, and Emotional Challenges for LGBT Adults

    Gary J. Gates
    August 2014

    LGBT individuals, particularly LGBT women, are less likely to be thriving across a range of measures of their health and well-being. Nearly 4 in 10 non-LGBT adults (39%) indicated that they were thriving in their financial lives compared to less than 3 in 10 LGBT adults (29%). The difference represents the biggest gap between the proportion of LGBT and non-LGBT adults who indicated that they were thriving across multiple measures of well-being analyzed in this study. The gap among women was 12 percentage points compared to an 8 percentage point difference among men.

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  • Submission to the Australian Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Committee Regarding the Recognition of Foreign Marriages Bill 2014

    By M. V. Lee Badgett
    August 2014

    In her testimony submitted to the Australian Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Committee, Williams Distinguished Scholar M. V. Lee Badgett highlights three issues involving the likely impact of Recognition of the Foreign Marriages Bill 2014. Based on experiences in the United States and the Netherlands, allowing same-sex couples to marry has had positive effects on couples, their children, and their families. Data from both countries also shows that civil unions are not a good substitute for marriage.

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  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Oklahoma

    By E.G. Fitzgerald, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    August 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Oklahoma would generate an estimated $20.5 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 6,134 same-sex couples live in Oklahoma. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (3,067 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring over $13.1 million in revenue to the state of Oklahoma that year.

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  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Florida

    By E.G. Fitzgerald, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    August 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Florida would generate an estimated $182.2 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 48,496 same-sex couples live in Florida. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that 50 percent (24,248 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring over $116 million in revenue to the state of Florida that year.

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  • Amici Brief: Constitutional Court of the Republic of Colombia

    By Abbie E. Goldberg, Nanette K. Gartrell, Gary J. Gates
    August 2014

    Williams Institute scholars filed an amici brief in two cases regarding adoption rights of same-sex couples that are pending before the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Colombia. Research indicates lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) parents and their children are functioning well, despite confronting discrimination in a variety of social contexts—including healthcare, legal and school systems. The two cases before the Court — Turandot v. Defensor Segundo de Familia de Rionegro and In the Matter of Diego Andrés Prada Vargas —concern the constitutionality of law barring adoption rights of same-sex couples.

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  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Tennessee

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    August 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Tennessee would generate an estimated $36.7 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 10,898 same-sex couples live in Tennessee. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (5,449 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring over $23.5 million in revenue to the state of Tennessee that year.

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  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Kentucky

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    August 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Kentucky would generate an estimated $23.4 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 7,195 same-sex couples live in Kentucky. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (3,598 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring over $15.0 million in revenue to the state of Kentucky that year.

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  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Ohio

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    August 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Ohio would generate an estimated $70.8 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 19,684 same-sex couples live in Ohio. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (9,842 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring over $45.3 million in revenue to the state of Ohio that year.

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