Research

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    Impact of Civil Marriage Recognition for Long-Term Same-Sex Couples

    By Ellen D. B. Riggle (University of Kentucky), Robert E. Wickham (Palo Alto University), Sharon S. Rostosky (University of Kentucky), Esther D. Rothblum (San Diego State University and The Williams Institute) and Kimberly F. Balsam (Palo Alto University)
    July 2016

    Same-sex marriage recognition at the state level was associated with more support from a spouse or partner and less psychological distress about an LGB identity, according to a recent study conducted prior to the recognition of marriage in all 50 US States. Furthermore, the study, entitled “Impact of Civil Marriage Recognition for Long Term Same-Sex Couples” by Ellen D. B. Riggle (University of Kentucky), Robert E. Wickham (Palo Alto University), Sharon S. Rostosky (University of Kentucky), Esther D. Rothblum (San Diego State University and The Williams Institute) and Kimberly F. Balsam (Palo Alto University), also finds that long-term same-sex relationships are beneficial to the health and well-being of couple members, regardless of marital status.

    Key findings from the study include that state recognition of same-sex marriages is significantly associated with experiencing less motivation to conceal an LGB identity, less vigilance and fewer feelings of isolation and that marriage may also reinforce commitment within a relationship, leading couple members to feel more positively about their relationship with their partner.

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    Food Insecurity and SNAP Participation in the LGBT Community

    By Taylor N.T. Brown, Adam P. Romero, and Gary J. Gates
    July 2016

    This study analyzes the extent of food insecurity experiences and participation in the federal Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) among LGBT adults and adults in same-sex couples. Using data from four representative, population-based surveys the authors find higher rates of these experiences among LGBT adults and adults in same-sex couples than among non-LGBT adults and adults in different-sex couples.

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    The Legal Needs of Cisgender Women Living with HIV: Evaluating Access to Justice in Los Angeles

    By Amira Hasenbush, Ayako Miyashita, and Brad Sears
    July 2016

    This report summarizes findings of the Legal Assessment of Needs Study (“LeAN Study”) – an online survey with 387 respondents who identified as people living with HIV/AIDS – for cisgender women living with HIV in Los Angeles County. We describe respondents’ legal needs, respondents’ experiences getting assistance for identified legal needs from both legal and non-legal sources, and barriers respondents faced in accessing assistance from both legal and non-legal sources. We describe differences and similarities between transgender women and all other respondents. Finally, we discuss how these legal needs may relate to health access and health status.

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    A Development Agenda for Sexual and Gender Minorities

    By Andrew Park, Esq.
    July 2016

    This paper sets out the theoretical framework for formulating an international development agenda for sexual and gender minorities. The audience for this paper includes researchers, development practitioners, human rights advocates and those in the LGBT community interested in the growing field of human and economic development.

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    How Many Adults Identify as Transgender in the United States

    By Andrew R. Flores, Jody L. Herman, Gary J. Gates, and Taylor N. T. Brown
    June 2016

    Utilizing data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), which includes representative state-level surveys, Williams Institute scholars provide up-to-date estimates of the percentage and number of adults who identify as transgender in the United States. Approximately 0.6% of adults in the United States, or 1.4 million individuals, identify as transgender.

    The study also provides the first ever state-level estimates of the number and percentage of adults who identify as transgender for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Differences exist in the percentage of adults who identify as transgender among the states, ranging from 0.3% in North Dakota to 0.8% in Hawaii. Differences by age also exist, with younger adults more likely to identify as transgender than older adults. An estimated 0.7% of adults ages 18 to 24, 0.6% of adults ages 25 to 64, and 0.5% of adults ages 65 and older identify as transgender.

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    Estimating the Economic Impact of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples One Year after Obergefell

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    June 2016

    Weddings by same-sex couples have generated an estimated $1.58 billion boost to the national economy, and $102 million in state and local sales tax revenue, since the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision extending marriage equality nationwide in June 2015. Since Obergefell v. Hodges, 132,000 same-sex couples have married, bringing the total of married same-sex couples in the U.S. to 491,000, or 49% of all same-sex couples.

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    Declaration of Ilan H. Meyer, in the case of Sexual Minorities Uganda v. Lively

    By Ilan H. Meyer
    May 2016

    By Ilan H. Meyer May 2016 Ilan Meyer, Williams Distinguished Senior Scholar of Public Policy, has submitted an expert report to a United Stated Federal Court in the case of Sexual Minorities Uganda v. Lively. In that case, a group of Ugandans have brought a lawsuit against evangelist Scott Lively for his role in conspiring …

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    Development and Human Rights: Two Complementary Frameworks

    By Andrew Park and M.V. Lee Badgett
    May 2016

    This article examines the differences and overlaps between the human rights and human development frameworks, and argues that both frameworks offer related, but separate, perspectives on public policy impacting LGBT people. The annual report, titled State-Sponsored Homophobia: A World Survey of Sexual Orientation Laws: Criminalisation, Protection and Recognition, is issued each year in connection with IDAHOT.

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    Does an Improved Social Environment for Sexual and Gender Minorities Have Implications for a New Minority Stress Research Agenda?

    By Ilan Meyer
    May 2016

    In this essay, Dr. Meyer notes changes in social attitudes in many countries that allow LGBT people in those countries to experience a more accepting and inclusive society. He argues that these changes compel researchers to assess the impacts of the changes on the lived experiences of LGBT people, including reducing health disparities between LGBT people and the general population, and across demographic categories – age, gender and gender expression, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic. At the same time, Dr. Meyer reminds us that these changes are not global, and that in many parts of the United States and the world LGBT people continue to experience stigma and prejudice that lead to discrimination and violence against them.

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    Discrimination, Diversity, and Development: The Legal and Economic Implications of North Carolina’s HB2

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    May 2016

    This report considers the legal and economic implications of North Carolina’s HB2. After considering the size of the LGBT population in North Carolina, and the legal landscape and social climate they face, this report estimates that HB2 directly puts at risk almost $5 billion just in terms of federal funding and business investment. In addition, HB2 contributes to a challenging environment for LGBT people that potentially costs the state tens to hundreds of millions of dollars each year.

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    The Fiscal Impact of Washington State Initiative Measure 1515

    By Amira Hasenbush, Christy Mallory, and Brad Sears
    May 2016

    A ballot initiative in Washington State that would restrict access to restrooms based on biological sex would impact an estimated 26,400 transgender people in the state, and could put at risk up to $4.5 billion in annual federal funding to schools and other state and local government entities. The initiative is in conflict with the gender identity non-discrimination requirements under several federal laws including Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, Executive Order 13672, Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, the Violence Against Women Act, the Affordable Care Act, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Housing Act of 1949. Federal agencies that enforce the laws are authorized to suspend or terminate funding if recipients violate the non-discrimination requirements.

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    The Fiscal Impact of North Carolina’s HB2

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    May 2016

    North Carolina’s law restricting access to restrooms based on sex listed on an individual’s birth certificate impacts an estimated 37,800 transgender people in the state, and puts at risk $4.8 billion in federal funding to state and local government entities. The law is in conflict with the gender identity non-discrimination requirements under several federal laws including Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, Executive Order 13672, Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, the Violence Against Women Act, the Affordable Care Act, the Equal Access Rule, and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Federal agencies that enforce the laws are authorized to suspend or terminate funding if recipients violate the non-discrimination requirements.

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    Profiles of Resilience and Psychosocial Outcomes among Young Black Gay and Bisexual Men

    By Patrick A. Wilson, Ilan H. Meyer, Nadav Antebi-Gruszka, Melissa R. Boone, Stephanie H. Cook, and Emily M. Cherenack
    April 2016

    This study explores different profiles of resilience factors in 228 Young Black gay/bisexual men (YBGBM) in New York City and compares profiles on psychological distress, mental health, and other psychosocial factors. Results suggest that self-efficacy and hardiness/adaptive coping may play a more important role in protecting YBGBM from risks compared to social support and should be targeted in interventions. The findings show that resilience is a multidimensional construct and support the notion that there are different patterns of resilience among YBGBM.

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    Meeting the Legal Needs of People Living with HIV: Effort, Impact, and Emerging Trends

    By Ayako Miyashita and Amira Hasenbush
    April 2016

    This report analyzes archival client services data from fourteen legal services providers dedicated to serving people living with HIV (“PLWH”) in the ten Metropolitan Statistical Areas with the largest number of HIV-positive residents. Those areas included New York, Miami, Los Angeles, Washington, D.C., Chicago, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Atlanta, Houston, and Dallas. This report includes data from 2010 through 2012 on legal needs addressed by each agency, eligibility criteria, funding, client demographics, target populations, and emerging trends in practice.

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    Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Regarding Establishing Paid Sick Leave for Federal Contractors, RIN 1235-AA13

    By Christy Mallory, Brad Sears, Adam Romero, and Jody Herman
    April 2016

    Williams Institute experts provided comments today on a proposed rule that implements Executive Order 13706, signed by President Barack Obama on September 2015, requiring federal contractors to provide paid sick leave to their employees. The rule will protect LGBT employees of federal contractors by ensuring that they have paid time off to meet the health care needs of themselves and their families.

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    Same-Sex and Different-Sex Parent Households and Child Health Outcomes: Findings from the National Survey of Children’s Health

    By Henny M.W. Bos, Justin R. Knox, Loes van Rijn-van Gelderen, and Nanette Gartrell
    April 2016

    Using the 2011–2012 National Survey of Children’s Health data set, this report compares spouse/partner relationships and parent-child relationships (family relationships), parenting stress, and children’s general health, emotional difficulties, coping behavior, and learning behavior (child outcomes) in households of same-sex (female) versus different-sex continuously coupled parents with biological offspring. Children with female same-sex parents and different-sex parents demonstrated no differences in outcomes, despite female same-sex parents reporting more parenting stress. Future studies may reveal the sources of this parenting stress.

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    The Fiscal Impact of Tennessee House Bill 2414

    By Christy Mallory, Brad Sears and Christopher Carpenter
    April 2016

    Tennessee House Bill 2414 requires public educational institutions to restrict students’ use of restrooms according to the sex assigned on their birth certificates. This policy is in conflict with several federal laws, and, if enacted, could lead to loss of federal funding, administrative enforcement proceedings, and litigation, which could result in costs and lost revenue to the State of Tennessee. This report estimates the number of transgender youth and adults in Tennessee and the amount of federal funding the state could stand to lose if the legislation were passed.

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    Voter ID Laws and Their Added Costs for Transgender Voters

    By Taylor N.T. Brown and Jody Herman
    March 2016

    There are ten states that require voters to provide photo identification in order to vote at the polls and mandate that those who do not do so undertake additional steps to ensure their vote is counted. Transgender people who are residents of these states with strict photo identification requirements for voting may face unique challenges when voting at the polls. To ensure that they are able to vote at the polls, potential voters need to make sure that their appearance, photo ID, and voter registration information match. In this report, we examine in detail the additional steps and costs that transgender people may encounter in order to vote at the polls in states with the strictest photo identification laws.

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    LGB within the T: Sexual Orientation in the National Transgender Discrimination Survey and Implications for Public Policy

    By Jody Herman
    March 2016

    This book chapter examines sexual orientation and discrimination experienced by transgender people, using data from the National Transgender Discrimination Survey. This study explores how respondents to the NTDS identified their sexual orientation, how those responses differ based on demographic variables (e.g. age, race, and gender), and how respondents’ experiences of discrimination and outcomes differ based on sexual orientation.

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    Reachable: Data collection methods for sexual orientation and gender identity

    By Andrew Park
    March 17, 2016

    Sexual and gender minorities have often been classified as “hard-to-reach” populations, particularly in middle and low income countries. However, recent developments in data collection methods demonstrate the increasing number of tools available to those seeking to understand the lived realities of sexual and gender minorities in many areas of the globe. Reachable highlight examples of measurements of sexual orientation and gender identity, and provides a brief number of examples of their use around the world, particularly in the areas of health, education and employment.

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