Research

  • GA-Census-Map

    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Georgia

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    August 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Georgia would generate an estimated $78.8 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 21,318 same-sex couples live in Georgia. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (10,659 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring over $50.4 million in revenue to the state of Georgia that year.

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    Sexual and Gender Minority Youth in Foster Care: Assessing Disproportionality and Disparities in Los Angeles

    By Bianca D.M. Wilson, Khush Cooper, Angel Kastanis, Sheila Nezhad
    August 2014

    LGBTQ foster youth are twice as likely to report poor treatment and more likely to live in group homes and to have more foster care placements. Approximately 1 in 5, or 1,400 foster youth in Los Angeles County, home to the nation’s largest population of foster youth, identify as LGBTQ. The finding is twice the estimated percentage of youth not in foster care who are LGBTQ. Over 86% of foster youth in Los Angeles are Latino, Black, or API.

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  • Healthcare Disadvantages and Discrepancies for LGBT Adults

    Gary J. Gates
    August 26, 2014

    LGBT adults are more likely than their non-LGBT counterparts to lack health insurance coverage. LGBT adults, particularly LGBT women, are more likely than non-LGBT individuals to report that they do not have a personal doctor. Among all adults, 29% of LGBT individuals did not have doctor compared to 21% of non-LGBT individuals. Among women, the gap was 29% for LGBT and 16% for non-LGBT. The differences in insurance coverage persist even when taking into account differences between LGBT and non-LGBT adults with regard to age, sex, race and ethnicity, educational attainment, state of residence, and population density.

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  • Financial, Social, and Emotional Challenges for LGBT Adults

    Gary J. Gates
    August 2014

    LGBT individuals, particularly LGBT women, are less likely to be thriving across a range of measures of their health and well-being. Nearly 4 in 10 non-LGBT adults (39%) indicated that they were thriving in their financial lives compared to less than 3 in 10 LGBT adults (29%). The difference represents the biggest gap between the proportion of LGBT and non-LGBT adults who indicated that they were thriving across multiple measures of well-being analyzed in this study. The gap among women was 12 percentage points compared to an 8 percentage point difference among men.

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  • Submission to the Australian Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Committee Regarding the Recognition of Foreign Marriages Bill 2014

    By M. V. Lee Badgett
    August 2014

    In her testimony submitted to the Australian Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Committee, Williams Distinguished Scholar M. V. Lee Badgett highlights three issues involving the likely impact of Recognition of the Foreign Marriages Bill 2014. Based on experiences in the United States and the Netherlands, allowing same-sex couples to marry has had positive effects on couples, their children, and their families. Data from both countries also shows that civil unions are not a good substitute for marriage.

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  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Oklahoma

    By E.G. Fitzgerald, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    August 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Oklahoma would generate an estimated $20.5 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 6,134 same-sex couples live in Oklahoma. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (3,067 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring over $13.1 million in revenue to the state of Oklahoma that year.

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  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Florida

    By E.G. Fitzgerald, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    August 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Florida would generate an estimated $182.2 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 48,496 same-sex couples live in Florida. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that 50 percent (24,248 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring over $116 million in revenue to the state of Florida that year.

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  • Amici Brief: Constitutional Court of the Republic of Colombia

    By Abbie E. Goldberg, Nanette K. Gartrell, Gary J. Gates
    August 2014

    Williams Institute scholars filed an amici brief in two cases regarding adoption rights of same-sex couples that are pending before the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Colombia. Research indicates lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) parents and their children are functioning well, despite confronting discrimination in a variety of social contexts—including healthcare, legal and school systems. The two cases before the Court — Turandot v. Defensor Segundo de Familia de Rionegro and In the Matter of Diego Andrés Prada Vargas —concern the constitutionality of law barring adoption rights of same-sex couples.

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  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Tennessee

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    August 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Tennessee would generate an estimated $36.7 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 10,898 same-sex couples live in Tennessee. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (5,449 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring over $23.5 million in revenue to the state of Tennessee that year.

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  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Kentucky

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    August 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Kentucky would generate an estimated $23.4 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 7,195 same-sex couples live in Kentucky. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (3,598 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring over $15.0 million in revenue to the state of Kentucky that year.

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  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Ohio

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    August 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Ohio would generate an estimated $70.8 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 19,684 same-sex couples live in Ohio. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (9,842 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring over $45.3 million in revenue to the state of Ohio that year.

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  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Michigan

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    August 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Michigan would generate an estimated $53.2 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 14,598 same-sex couples live in Michigan. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (7,299 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring over $34.1 million in revenue to the state of Michigan that year.

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  • Same-Sex Couples in Wisconsin: A demographic summary

    By Gary J. Gates
    August 2014

    Based on the Census 2010, there are 9,179 same-sex couples living in Wisconsin. The majority of same-sex couples are female (57%). One in five same-sex couples in the state (20%) are raising children under age 18 in their homes. More than 1,790 same-sex-couple households in the state are raising nearly 3,200 children. One in three individuals in same-sex couples who are members of racial or ethnic minorities (36%) are raising a child under age 18, compared to 17% of their White counterparts. The median annual household income of same-sex couples with children under age 18 in the home is 43% lower than the median annual household income of comparable different-sex married couples ($46,778 versus $82,767).

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  • Same-Sex Couples in Indiana: A demographic summary

    By Gary J. Gates
    August 2014

    Based on the Census 2010, there are 11,074 same-sex couples living in Indiana. The majority of same-sex couples are female (56%). Nearly one in five same-sex couples in the state (17%) are raising children under age 18 in their homes. More than 1,830 same-sex-couple households in the state are raising nearly 3,200 children. One in four individuals in same-sex couples who are members of racial or ethnic minorities (26%) are raising a child under age 18, compared to 14% of their White counterparts. The median annual household income of same-sex couples with children under age 18 in the home is 4% lower than the median annual household income of comparable different-sex married couples ($72,156 versus $74,957).

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  • Research Report on LGB-Parent Families

    By Abbie E. Goldberg, Nanette K. Gartrell, Gary Gates
    July 2014

    LGB parenting has grown more visible over the past few decades. Research on LGB parents and their children has proliferated alongside this increasing visibility. This report addresses the research on LGB parenting, focusing on several main content areas: family building by LGB people, the transition to parenthood for LGB parents, and functioning and experiences of LGB parents and their children. In addition to discussing what we know about LGB-parent families, we identify gaps in our knowledge, and highlight key areas that future studies should aim to address.

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  • Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Texas

    By E.G. Fitzgerald, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    July 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Texas would generate an estimated $181.6 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 46,401 same-sex couples live in Texas. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that 50 percent (23,200 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years. Over 14,848 marriages would occur in the first year alone, and bring up to $116 million in revenue to the state of Texas that year.

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  • Mental Health and Suicidality Among Racially/Ethnically Diverse Sexual Minority Youths

    By Wendy B. Bostwick, Ilan Meyer, et al.
    July 2014

    Sexual minority youth had higher prevalence than heterosexual youth of each of the six outcomes studied, including self-harm, feeling sad, and suicide ideation, planning, and attempts. The study shows that 22.8 percent of sexual minority youth compared with 6.6 percent of heterosexual youth had attempted suicide in the year prior to being surveyed. Notably, the odds of suicide ideation, planning, and attempt among sexual minority youth varied by race/ethnicity.

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  • Discrimination Against State and Local Government LGBT Employees: An Analysis of Administrative Complaints

    By Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    July 2014

    Based on employment discrimination complaints with state and local administrative agencies, 589 complaints of sexual orientation and gender identity discrimination were filed by public sector workers in 123 jurisdictions. Discrimination against LGBT people in the public sector is pervasive and occurs nearly as frequently as discrimination in the private sector, at rates similar to discrimination based on sex and race. Currently, no federal law prohibits discrimination against LGBT people, and most states do not have laws prohibiting such discrimination.

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  • Universal Periodic Review of the United States: Sub-group on Civil Rights and Racial and Ethnic Discrimination Issues

    By Andrew Park, Adam P. Romero
    July 2014

    Based on State Department testimony by Williams Institute scholars, social science research and legal analysis suggest the United States is failing to comply with international human rights standards in relation to LGBT people. While the U.S. has seen significant progress in recent years, a majority of states fail to provide legal protections for LGBT people and families, despite evidence of persistent and pervasive discrimination, economic vulnerability, and violence and sexual assault.

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  • The Role of Help-Seeking in Preventing Suicide Attempts among Lesbians, Gay Men, and Bisexuals

    By Ilan Meyer, Merilee Teylan, Sharon Schwartz
    June 2014

    Lesbians, gay men and bisexuals (LGB) who sought help from religious or spiritual sources were more likely to commit suicide than those who sought treatment from a health care provider or who did not seek treatment at all. Only about 16 percent of LGB people who made a serious suicide attempt sought mental health treatment from a health professional prior to the attempt; about 13 percent sought religious or spiritual treatment prior to the attempt.

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