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    The Relationship between LGBT Inclusion and Economic Development: An Analysis of Emerging Economies

    By M.V. Lee Badgett, Sheila Nezhad, Kees Waaldijk, Yana van der Meulen Rodgers
    November 2014

    When LGBT people are denied full participation in society because of their identities, their human rights are violated, and those violations of human rights are likely to have a harmful effect on a country’s level of economic development. This study analyzes the impact of the treatment of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people on economic development in 39 emerging economies and other selected countries, and presents findings that demonstrate a link between LGBT rights and economic output.

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    Satisfaction with Known, Open-identity, or Unknown Sperm Donors: Reports from Lesbian Mothers of 17-year-old Adolescents

    Nanette Gartrell, Henny Bos, Naomi Goldberg, Amalia Deck, Loes van Rijn-van Gelderen
    October 2014

    Eighteen years after conceiving their sons or daughters through donor insemination, 77.5 percent of 129 lesbian mothers were satisfied with their choice of sperm donor, according to a new study released today by the Williams Institute. Donor access and custody concerns were the primary themes associated with the mothers’ satisfaction.

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    NC

    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in North Carolina

    By Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    October 2014

    Approximately 159,000 LGBT workers in North Carolina are not expressly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Adding sexual orientation and gender identity to existing statewide non-discrimination laws would result in 58 additional complaints being filed in the state each year; 50 filed by private sector workers in the courts, and eight filed administratively by government workers. The cost of enforcing the additional complaints would be negligible, and would not require additional court or administrative staff.

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    PR

    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Puerto Rico

    By Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Puerto Rico would generate an estimated $17.2 million in spending to the Commonwealth’s economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 4,742 same-sex couples live in Puerto Rico. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (2,371 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring about $11 million in revenue to Puerto Rico that year.

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    WI

    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Wisconsin

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Wisconsin would generate an estimated $34.3 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 9,179 same-sex couples live in Wisconsin. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (4,590 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring over $21.9 million in revenue to the state of Wisconsin that year.

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    NE

    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Nebraska

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Nebraska would generate an estimated $8.0 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 2,356 same-sex couples live in Nebraska. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (1,178 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring about $5.2 million in revenue to the state of Nebraska that year.

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    AR

    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Arkansas

    By Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Arkansas would generate an estimated $13.6 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 4,226 same-sex couples live in Arkansas. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (2,113 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring about $8.7 million in revenue to the state of Arkansas that year.

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    AL

    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Alabama

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Alabama would generate an estimated $21.7 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 6,582 same-sex couples live in Alabama. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (3,291 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring about $13.9 million in revenue to the state of Alabama that year.

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    LA

    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Louisiana

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Louisiana would generate an estimated $28.3 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 8,076 same-sex couples live in Louisiana. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (4,038 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring about $18.1 million in revenue to the state of Louisiana that year.

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    MS

    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Mississippi

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Mississippi would generate an estimated $10.8 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 3,484 same-sex couples live in Mississippi. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (1,742 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring about $6.9 million in revenue to the state of Mississippi that year.

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    KS

    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Kansas

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Kansas would generate an estimated $14.1 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 4,009 same-sex couples live in Kansas. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (2,005 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring about $9 million in revenue to the state of Kansas that year.

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    ND

    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in North Dakota

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in North Dakota would generate an estimated $1.9 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 559 same-sex couples live in North Dakota. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (280 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring about $1.2 million in revenue to the state of North Dakota that year.

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    SD

    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in South Dakota

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in South Dakota would generate an estimated $2.4 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 714 same-sex couples live in South Dakota. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (357 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring about $1.5 million in revenue to the state of South Dakota that year.

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    MT

    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Montana

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Montana would generate an estimated $4.5 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 1,348 same-sex couples live in Montana. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (674 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring about $2.9 million in revenue to the state of Montana that year.

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    ID

    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples In Idaho

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Idaho would generate an estimated $6.8 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 2,042 same-sex couples live in Idaho. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (1,021 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring nearly $4.4 million in revenue to the state of Idaho that year.

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    SC

    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in South Carolina

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in South Carolina would generate an estimated $25.2 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 7,214 same-sex couples live in South Carolina. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (3,607 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring about $16 million in revenue to the state of South Carolina that year.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Georgia

    Christy Mallory, Brad Sears
    October 2014

    Approximately 7,500 LGBT workers in Georgia are vulnerable to employment discrimination absent state legal protections. At least 35 localities in Georgia prohibit public sector employment discrimination against LGBT people. While Georgia law protects state workers from discrimination based on personal characteristics including race, religion, national origin, sex, disability, and age, it does not include sexual orientation or gender identity.

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    NC

    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in North Carolina

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in North Carolina would generate an estimated $64.4 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 18,309 same-sex couples live in North Carolina. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (9,155 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years, a pattern that has been observed in Massachusetts and elsewhere. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring about $41.2 million in revenue to the state of North Carolina that year.

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    AR

    Friend-of-the-Court Briefs Submitted by Williams Institute Scholar in Arkansas Supreme Court Marriage Case

    By Gary J. Gates
    October 2014

    Williams Institute Distinguished Scholar Gary Gates submitted an amicus brief in the Arkansas Supreme Court in the case of Wright v. Arkansas concerning the legality of a constitutional ban on marriage for same-sex couples. There are 4,226 same-sex couples living in the state. More than half of individuals in same-sex couples who are members of racial or ethnic minorities (56%) are raising a child under age 18. The median annual household income of same-sex couples with children under age 18 in the home is 33% lower than the median annual household income of comparable different-sex married couples ($42,429 versus $63,744).

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    Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Alaska

    By Justin O'Neill, Christy Mallory, M.V. Lee Badgett
    October 2014

    Extending marriage to same-sex couples in Alaska would generate an estimated $8 million in spending to the state economy. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the most recent data available, 1,228 same-sex couples live in Alaska. Of those couples, the Institute estimates that fifty percent (614 couples) would choose to marry in the first three years. The marriages that would occur in the first year alone would bring over $5.1 million in revenue to the state of Alaska that year.

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