Experts

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    Evidence of Housing Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: An Analysis of Complaints Filed with State Enforcement Agencies, 2008-2014

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    February 2016

    LGBT people file housing discrimination complaints based on sexual orientation and gender identity as frequently as people of color and women file complaints based on race and sex. This study examines complaints filed with state enforcement agencies based on sexual orientation or gender identity, race, and sex and adjusts them by the number of adults most likely to experience each type of discrimination – LGBT people, people of color, and women. Data on discrimination complaints were collected from 18 of the 22 states that prohibited housing discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity.

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    Backlash, Consensus, Legitimacy, or Polarization: The Effect of Same-Sex Marriage Policy on Mass Attitudes

    By Andrew R. Flores and Scott Barclay
    January 2016

    In the last 10 years, public support for marriage for same-sex couples has increased across the United States. But the most dramatic drop in anti-gay attitudes occurred in states that legalized marriage equality – in fact, 47% of residents who initially were opposed changed their minds. That’s almost double the percentage seen in states where marriage equality was not legal. In those states, 24% of residents who were initially opposed changed their minds. The findings are discussed in a report co-authored by Public Opinion and Policy Analyst Andrew R. Flores and published in Political Research Quarterly.

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    The LGBT Divide in California: A Look at the Socioeconomic Well-being of LGBT People in California

    By Angeliki Kastanis
    January 2016

    While LGBT people in California appear to be doing better than LGBT people nationwide, there is as much disparity within the state as throughout the rest of the United States. This report and data interactive explores disparities in the socioeconomic well-being of LGBT people throughout California, using data from the 2010 U.S. Census and the 2012-2014 Gallup Daily Tracking Survey. These regional patterns mirror those for non-LGBT people, which suggests that broader demographic factors also play an important role in LGBT vulnerability.

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    Transgender inclusion in state non-discrimination policies: The democratic deficit and political powerlessness

    By Andrew Flores, Jody Herman and Christy Mallory
    December 2015

    We find that there is a substantial democratic deficit regarding the inclusion of gender identity or transgender in employment non-discrimination policies. On average, state support for the policy must be 81% in order for the state to have a policy reflecting such sentiment. This leaves substantial implications for the political powerlessness of transgender people in the political process.

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    Internalized gay ageism, mattering, and depressive symptoms among midlife and older gay-identified men

    By Richard G. Wight, Allen J. LeBlanc, Ilan H. Meyer, Frederick A. Harig
    December 2015

    In this paper published in Social Science and Medicine we introduce the construct of “internalized gay ageism,” or the sense that one feels denigrated or depreciated because of aging in the context of a gay male identity, which we identify as an unexplored aspect of sexual minority stress specific to midlife and older gay-identified men. We find that internalized gay ageism can reliably be measured among these men, is positively associated with depressive symptoms net of an array of other factors that may also influence symptomatology (including depressive symptom histories), and mattering partially mediates but does not moderate its effect on depressive symptoms.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in North Dakota

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    December 2015

    Approximately 6,800 LGBT workers in North Dakota are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees has been documented in surveys, legislative testimony, the media, and in reports to community-based organizations. Many corporate employers and public opinion in Louisiana support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, three more complaints would be filed in North Dakota each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would most likely be negligible, and would not require additional court or administrative staff.

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    HIV Criminalization in California: Penal Implications for People Living with HIV/AIDS

    By Amira Hasenbush, Ayako Miyashita, and Bianca D.M. Wilson
    December 2015

    Given the lack of comprehensive data on the use of HIV criminal laws in California, Williams Institute researchers obtained criminal offender record information (CORI) data from the California Department of Justice. CORI data record any contacts an individual may have with the criminal justice system, from every event beginning at arrest through sentencing, so these data provide a full chronological record of how four state laws that criminalize people living with HIV are being utilized from the time of their enactment to June 2014.

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    The Legal Needs of Transgender Women Living with HIV: Evaluating Access to Justice in Los Angeles

    By Ayako Miyashita, Amira Hasenbush, and Brad Sears
    November 2015

    This report summarizes findings of the Legal Assessment of Needs Study (“LeAN Study”) – an online survey with 387 respondents who identified as people living with HIV/AIDS – for transgender women living with HIV in Los Angeles County. We describe respondents’ legal needs, respondents’ experiences getting assistance for identified legal needs from both legal and non-legal sources, and barriers respondents faced in accessing assistance from both legal and non-legal sources. We describe differences and similarities between transgender women and all other respondents. Finally, we discuss how these legal needs may relate to health access and health status.

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    Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Abuse among LGBT People

    By Taylor N.T. Brown and Jody Herman
    November 2015

    This report provides an overview of existing research on intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual abuse (IPSA) among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people and makes recommendations for future research. The researchers reviewed 42 studies, from 1989 to the present, that include findings on the prevalence of IPV and IPSA, survivors’ barriers to seeking help, and the quality of available assistance for LGBT people. Most studies reviewed for this report found a lifetime prevalence of IPV among lesbian and bisexual women, gay and bisexual men, and transgender people that is as high as or higher than the U.S. general population.

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    Estimating the Economic Impact of Marriage for Same-sex Couples after Obergefell

    By Christy Mallory
    November 2015

    An estimated 96,000 same-sex couples in the U.S. married in the four months following the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision extending marriage to same-sex couples nationwide. Wedding spending by these couples and their out-of-state guests have boosted state and local economies by an estimated $813 million, and have generated an estimated $52 million in state and local sales tax revenue. This spending could support an estimated 9,700 jobs for one full year.

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    Williams Institute Scholars Provide Legal Analyses to Obama Administration Regarding Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Discrimination in Healthcare

    By Adam Romero
    November 2015

    Williams Institute scholars—joined by over 40 professors of law, public policy, and public health—submitted detailed legal analyses to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in support of protections against sexual orientation and gender identity discrimination in healthcare.

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    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Louisiana

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    November 2015

    Approximately 88,400 LGBT workers in Louisiana are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees has been documented in surveys, media reports and complaints to community-based organizations. Many corporate employers and public opinion in Louisiana support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, 41 more complaints would be filed in Kansas each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would most likely be negligible, and would not require additional court or administrative staff.

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    Marriage and Same-sex Couples after Obergefell

    By Gary J. Gates and Taylor N.T. Brown
    November 2015

    This research brief analyzes the impact of the US Supreme Court’s decisions in Windsor v. United States (June 2013) and Obergefell v. Hodges (June 2015) on marriage by same-sex couples. In 2013, the year that the Windsor ruling was issued, an estimated 230,000 same-sex couples were married, 21% of all same-sex couples. By June 2015, when Obergefell was decided, 390,000 same-sex couples were married, 38% of all same-sex couples. As of October 2015, 486,000 same-sex couples were married, or 45% of all same-sex couples. The legal benefits and obligations of marriage now support these married couples, more than a quarter of whom are raising children, and the visibility of these families will likely continue to accelerate public support for marriage equality in the United States.

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    Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the Workplace: A Practical Guide

    By Brad Sears and Christy Mallory
    October 2015

    Two chapters summarizing the Williams Institute’s research were published in Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the Workplace: A Practical Guide. Co-authored by Brad Sears and Christy Mallory, the first chapter documents discrimination against LGBT people. The second chapter shows the business case for LGBT inclusion in the workplace.

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    Model Employment Policies for Federal Contractors Related to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

    By Christy Mallory, Adam Romero, and Brad Sears
    October 2015

    This document provides model policies for federal contractors, subcontractors, and federally-assisted contractors (collectively, “federal contractors”) to comply with Executive Order (“EO”) 11246 and other laws prohibiting sexual orientation and gender identity discrimination in employment. Federal contractors are prohibited by executive order from engaging in sexual orientation and gender identity discrimination. In addition, federal courts and agencies are increasingly concluding that Title VII’s prohibition on sex discrimination covers sexual orientation and gender identity discrimination and a growing number of state and local laws prohibit also such discrimination.

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    Evidence of Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: An Analysis of Complaints Filed with State Enforcement Agencies

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    October 2015

    LGBT people use sexual orientation and gender identity employment non-discrimination laws as frequently as people of color and women use race and sex non-discrimination laws. This study examines complaints filed based on sexual orientation or gender identity, race, and sex and adjusts them by the number of people in the workforce most likely to experience each type of discrimination – LGBT people, people of color and women.

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    Marriage and Family: LGBT Individuals and Same-sex Couples

    By Gary J. Gates
    October 2015

    As debates about marriage equality cool, researchers can explore new questions about LGBT family dynamics, including how parents divide labor in the absence of gender differences between spouses or partners and whether parent-child relationships change in ways that are consistent with gender norms when a parent transitions from one gender to another.

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    KS

    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Kansas

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    September 2015

    Approximately 55,000 LGBT workers in Kansas are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees has been documented in surveys, media reports and complaints to community-based organizations. Many corporate employers and public opinion in Kansas support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, 26 more complaints would be filed in Kansas each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would most likely be negligible, and would not require additional court or administrative staff.

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    Attitudes toward Transgender Rights: Perceived Knowledge and Secondary Interpersonal Contact

    By Andrew R. Flores
    June 2015

    This study examines public attitudes about transgender rights in the USA. It finds that as respondents report being more informed about transgender people they tend to have more supportive attitudes. Interpersonal contact with someone who is lesbian or gay also leads to a secondary transfer of positive attitudes. About half of the secondary transfer effect operates through a mechanism of attitude generalization: contact positively affects the opinions people have on gay rights that then broaden to affect attitudes on transgender rights.

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    MS

    Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Mississippi

    By Christy Mallory and Brad Sears
    September 2015

    Approximately 34,800 LGBT workers in Mississippi are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees has been documented in surveys, media reports, and court cases. Many corporate employers and public opinion in Mississippi support protections for LGBT people in the workplace.

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